Ukuchithwa kwemali ngokuchasene nokusetyenziswa kwemali kunye neendlela zokulwa nezoyikiso ze-Netherlands nase-Ukraine

intshayelelo

Kuluntu lwethu olukhawulezileyo olukudijithali, umngcipheko ngokubhekisele ekutsaleni imali nakwimali yokugrogrisa iya isiba nkulu. Kwimibutho kubalulekile ukuba ubazi ubungozi. Imibutho kufuneka ichaneke kakhulu ngokuthobela. ENetherlands, oku kusebenza ikakhulu kumaziko aphantsi kweembophelelo ezivela kuMthetho wamaDatshi wokuthintela ukuxhaphaza imali kunye nokuxhotyiswa ngezimali kwabagrogrisi (Wwft). Ezi zibophelelo zifakwe ukuze kufunyanwe kwaye kuliwe nokudodobala kwemali kunye nokuxhotyiswa ngezimali kobugrogrisi. Ngolwazi oluthe kratya malunga nezibophelelo ezivela kulo mthetho, sibhekisa kwinqaku lethu elidlulileyo 'Ukuthotyelwa kwicandelo lezomthetho laseDatshi'. Xa amaziko ezemali engathobeli ezi zibophelelo, oku kunokuba nemiphumo emibi. Ubungqina boku bubonakalisiwe kwisigwebo sangoku seKhomishini yeDatshi yokuBhengeza ushishino kunye nomzi mveliso (nge-17 kaJanuwari ka-2018, ECLI: NL: CBB: 2018: 6).

Ukugwetywa kweKhomishini yeDatshi yokuBhena kwishishini nakwimizi-mveliso

Eli tyala limalunga nenkampani ethembana ebonelela ngeenkonzo zentembeko kubantu bendalo nakwimibutho esemthethweni. Inkampani ethembayo ibonelele ngeenkonzo zakhe kumntu obenobunini bezindlu eUkraine (umntu A). Indawo yokuthengisa izindlu nomhlaba yayixabisa i-USD, 10,000,000. Umntu Isatifikethi sokukhutshwa kwepotifoliyo yesakhiwo kwiqumrhu elisemthethweni (icandelo B). Izabelo zeqonga B beziphethwe ngumnini-zabelo otyunjiweyo wesizwe saseUkraine (umntu C). Ke ngoko umntu ongu-C wayengoyena mnikazi wokugcina wepotifoliyo. Ngomzuzu othile, umntu u-C udlulisele izabelo zakhe komnye umntu (umntu u-D). Umntu ongu-C akafumananga nto kwimbuyekezo ngezi zabelo, zadluliselwa kumntu ongu-D simahla. Umntu owazisiweyo yinkampani ethembayo malunga nokutshintshelwa kwezabelo kunye nenkampani ethembekileyo yokuqesha D njengomnini wokufumana inzuzo wokugqibela. Kwiinyanga ezimbalwa kamva, inkampani ethembekileyo yazisa iCandelo Lophando Ngezimali laseDatshi ngezinto ezininzi ezenziweyo, kubandakanya nokudluliselwa kwezabelo ezichazwe ngaphambili. Kulapho kwavela khona iingxaki. Emva kokuba wazisiwe ngogqithiso lwezabelo ukusuka kuye umntu kuye komnye umntu u-D, iBhanki kaZwelonke yaseDatshi yahlawulisa isohlwayo se-EUR 40,000 kwinkampani ethembekileyo. Isizathu soku kukusilela ekuthobeleni i-Wwft. NgokweBhanki kaZwelonke yaseDatshi, inkampani ethembayo kufanele ukuba ibarhanela ukuba ukuhanjiswa kwezabelo kunxulumene nokuchithwa kwemali okanye imali yokugrogrisa, kuba izabelo zahanjiswa simahla ngelixa ipotifoliyo yesakhiwo ixabisa imali eninzi. Ke ngoko, inkampani yetrasti kufanelekile ukuba ixele le ntengiselwano kwisithuba seentsuku ezilishumi elinesine, ezivela kwi-Wwft. Eli tyala lihlala lesohlwaywa nge-EUR 500,000. Nangona kunjalo, iBhanki yeSizwe yaseDatshi iye yamodareyitha le mali ukuya kuthi ga kwi-EUR 40,000 ngenxa yobungakanani bolwaphulo-mthetho kunye nerekhodi lenkampani yenkampani ethembekileyo.

Inkampani yenkampani ethembela kuye yaya naye enkundleni ngenxa yokuba ikholelwa ekubeni isohlwayo singekho mthethweni. Inkampani ethembisayo ithi intengiselwano yayingeyiyo intengiselwano njengoko kuchaziwe kwi-Wwft, kuba intengiselwano yayingengokwentengiselwano egameni lomntu A. Nangona kunjalo, iKhomishini icinga ngenye indlela. Ulwakhiwo phakathi komntu uA, iqhezu B kunye nomntu C lwakhiwe ukwenzela ukuthintela ukuqokelelwa kwerhafu kurhulumente wase-Ukraine. Umntu Umntu udlale indima ephambili kolu lwakhiwo. Ngapha koko, umnini wepropathi oyinzuzo wokugqibela watshintsha ngokutshintshela omnye umntu C kuye komnye umntu. Oku kubandakanye nenguqu kwisikhundla somntu, kuba umntu A engasenalo ilungelo lokugcina ipropathi yomntu uC kodwa eyomntu uD. Umntu A wayebandakanyeke ngokusondeleyo kwintengiselwano kwaye ke ngenxa yoko kuthengiselwano lwalusezandleni zomntu A.Ukuba umntu ungumthengi wenkampani ethembekileyo, inkampani ethembekileyo ifanele ukuba ichaze ukuthengiselana. Ngapha koko, iKomishini ichaze ukuba ukuhanjiswa kwezabelo yinto engaqhelekanga. Oku kulele kwinto yokuba izabelo zatshintshelwa simahla, ngelixa ixabiso lendawo ethengisa izindlu lalimela i-USD, 10,000,000, XNUMX. Kwakhona, ukuxabiseka kwepropathi yendawo ethe kratya kwakumangalisa ngokudibeneyo kunye nezinye ii-asethi zomntu C. Okokugqibela, omnye wabalawuli beofisi yetrasti wathi intengiselwano 'yayingaqhelekanga kakhulu', evuma ukuba yinto engaqhelekanga intengiselwano. Intengiselwano ke iphakamisa ukukrokrelwa kwemali okanye imali yokugrogrisa kwaye bekufanele ukuba kwenziwe ingxelo ngaphandle kokulibazisa. Isohlwayo ke sasimiselwa ngokusemthethweni.

Isigwebo sonke siyafumaneka ngesiqhagamshelo.

Ukuchithwa kwemali ngokuchasene nemali kunye neendlela zokulwa nzobugrogrisi eUkraine

Ityala elichazwe apha ngasentla libonisa ukuba inkampani yaseDutch iyakwazi ukuhlawuliswa ngentengiselwano eyenzeka e-Ukraine. Umthetho wase-Datshi ungasebenza nakwimibutho esebenza kwamanye amazwe, ukuba nje kukho ikhonkco ne-Netherlands. INetherlands iphumeze amanyathelo athile okufumana kunye nokulwa ukuphathwa kwemali kunye nokuxhotyiswa ngezimali kobugrogrisi. Kwimibutho yaseUkraine efuna ukusebenza ngaphakathi eNetherlands okanye koosomashishini baseUkraine abafuna ukuqala ishishini eNetherlands, ukuthobela umthetho waseDatshi kunokuba nzima. Oku kungenxa yokuba iUkraine ineendlela ezahlukileyo zokujongana nokuthathwa kwemali kunye nokuxhotyiswa ngezemali ngobugrogrisi kwaye ayikayenzi imigangatho eyandisiweyo njenge-Netherlands. Nangona kunjalo, ukulwa nokuthintela imali kunye nokuxhotyiswa ngezimali kwabanqolobi kuye kwaba sisihloko esibaluleke kakhulu e-Ukraine. Sele iyisihloko esona nto, kangangokuba iBhunga laseYurophu lagqiba kwelokuba liqale uphando malunga nokuxhotyiswa kwemali kunye nokuxhotyiswa ngezimali kwabagrogrisi e-Ukraine.

Ngo-2017, iBhunga laseYurophu lenze uphando malunga nokuthintela imali kunye neendlela zokulwa nezobupolitika e-Ukraine. Olu phando lwenziwe yikomiti etyunjiweyo ekhethekileyo, ebizwa ngokuba yiKomiti yeengcali ekuVandlakanyeni iMilinganiselo yokuGxothwa kweMali kunye nokuXhaswa kweMali ngobuGrogrisi (iMALIYVAL). Le komiti inike ingxelo yoko ikufumanisileyo ngoDisemba ka-2017. Le ngxelo ibonelela ngesishwankathelo semali yokuthintela imali kunye nokuthintela amanyathelo okuxhasa ngemali e-Ukraine. Uhlalutya inqanaba lokuthotyelwa kweNgcebiso yokuSebenza ngeMali kwiMisebenzi engama-40 kunye nenqanaba lempumelelo ye-Ukraine yokuchasa imali kunye nenkqubo yemali yokulwa nobunqolobi. Ingxelo ikwabonelela ngeziphakamiso malunga nokuba le nkqubo ingaqiniswa njani.

Iziphumo eziphambili zophando

IKomiti ichaze iziphumo eziphambili eziye zeza kuphando, ezithe zashwankathelwa apha ngezantsi:

  • Urhwaphilizo lubeka umngcipheko ophambili ngokubhekisele ekutshonelweni kwemali eUkraine. Urhwaphilizo luvelisa imisebenzi emininzi yolwaphulo-mthetho kwaye lujongela phantsi ukusebenza kwamaziko karhulumente nenkqubo yezobulungisa kulwaphulo-mthetho. Abasemagunyeni bayabazi ubungozi obufumaneka kurhwaphilizo kwaye basebenzisa amanyathelo okunciphisa le ngozi. Nangona kunjalo, ukuthotyelwa komthetho kugxile ekujolise ekutsaleni imali enxulumene urhwaphilizo kuqalile nje.
  • I-Ukraine inokuqonda okufanelekileyo kokuxhotyiswa kwemali kunye nemingcipheko yokuxhasa ngemali umngcipheko. Nangona kunjalo, ukuqonda ngale mingcipheko kunokuphuculwa kwiindawo ezithile, ezinjengomngcipheko wokuwela umda, icandelo elingenzi nzuzo kunye nabantu basemthethweni. I-Ukraine inolungelelwaniso ngokubanzi kwilizwe ngokubanzi kunye neendlela zokwenza imigaqo-nkqubo ukulungisa le mingcipheko, enefuthe elihle. Ukushishina okunobuqili, uqoqosho lwesithunzi kunye nokusetyenziswa kwemali kusafuneka kujongwane nazo, kuba zibeka umngcipheko omkhulu wokubambisa imali.
  • Icandelo le-Intelligence yezezimali yase-Ukraine (i-UFIU) ivelisa ubukrelekrele bemali womyalelo ophezulu. Oku kubangela rhoqo uphando. Iiarhente zokunyanzeliswa komthetho nazo zifuna ulwazi kwi-UFIU ukuxhasa imizamo yazo yophando. Nangona kunjalo, inkqubo ye-IT ye-UFIU iyaphelelwa lixesha kwaye inqanaba labasebenzi alikwazi ukujongana nomsebenzi omkhulu. Nangona kunjalo, i-Ukraine ithathe amanyathelo okuphucula umgangatho wokunikezelwa kwengxelo.
  • Ukuthengiswa kwemali eUkraine kusabonwa njengokwandiswa kweminye imisebenzi yolwaphulo-mthetho. Kwakucingelwa ukuba ukuxhaphaza imali kunokuya kuphela enkundleni emva kokugwetywa kwangaphambili ngenxa yolwaphulo-mthetho. Izivakalisi zokuxhaphaza imali nazo zingaphantsi kunakwimeko egwenxa. Abasemagunyeni eUkraine kutshanje baqalise ukuthatha amanyathelo ukuze baphange imali ethile. Nangona kunjalo, la manyathelo akabonakali ngathi asetyenziswa ngokungaguqukiyo.
  • Ukususela ngo-2014 iUkraine igxile kwiziphumo zobunqolobi bamanye amazwe. Oku kungenxa yokuba isoyikiso se-Islamic State (IS). Uphando lwezemali lwenziwa ngaxeshanye kulo lonke uphando olunxulumene nobugrogrisi. Nangona amanqaku enkqubo esebenzayo abonisiwe, isakhelo somthetho asikahambelani ngokupheleleyo imigangatho yamazwe.
  • I-National Bank yeUkraine (NBU) inolwazi oluchanekileyo malunga nemingcipheko kwaye isebenzisa indlela efanelekileyo esekwe kumngcipheko ekubekweni kweebhanki. Kwenziwe iinzame ezinkulu zokuqinisekisa ukungafihli nto nasekukhutshweni kwezikrelemnqa kulawulo lweebhanki. I-NBU isebenzise uluhlu olubanzi lwezohlwayo kwiibhanki. Oku kubangele kusetyenziso olusebenzayo lwamanyathelo othintelo. Nangona kunjalo, abanye oogunyaziwe bafuna ukuphuculwa okubonakalayo ekwenzeni imisebenzi yabo kunye nokusebenzisa amanyathelo othintela.
  • Uninzi lwamacandelo abucala eUkraine axhomekeke kwiRejista yoBumbano lweLizwe ukuqinisekisa umnini-nkonzo onenzuzo. Nangona kunjalo, uMgcini werejista akaqinisekisi ukuba ulwazi olunikezwe kulo ngabantu abasemthethweni luchanekile okanye lwangoku. Oku kuthathwa njengomcimbi wezinto ezibonakalayo.
  • I-Ukraine ibisoloko inomdla ekunikezeleni nasekufuneni uncedo kwezomthetho. Nangona kunjalo, imiba enje ngedipozithi eyimali inefuthe ekusetyenzisweni koncedo olusemthethweni olunikezelweyo. Umthamo waseUkraine wokubonelela ngoncedo nawo uchaphazeleka kakubi kukungabonakali ngokucacileyo kwabantu abasemthethweni.

Iziphetho zengxelo

Ngokusekwe kwingxelo, kunokugqitywa ukuba i-Ukraine ijongene nemingcipheko ebalulekileyo yokufumana imali. Urhwaphilizo kunye nemisebenzi yezoqoqosho engekho mthethweni zezona zisongelo ziphambili zokuxhaphaza imali. Ukusasazeka kwemali eUkraine kuphezulu kwaye kunyusa uqoqosho lwesithunzi eUkraine. Oluqoqosho lwethunzi lubeka isoyikiso esikhulu kwinkqubo yezemali nakukhuseleko lwezoqoqosho lweli. Malunga nomngcipheko wokuxhotyiswa ngezimali kwabagrogrisi, iUkraine isetyenziswa njengelizwe lokudlula kwabo bafuna ukujoyina i-IS imfazwe eSyria. Icandelo elingajonganga nzuzo lenze ukuba lisengozini yokuxhotyiswa ngezemali ngobugrogrisi. Eli candelo lisetyenziswe gwenxa ukuhambisa imali kubanqolobi nakwimibutho yabanqolobi.

Nangona kunjalo, i-Ukraine ithathe amanyathelo ukuze kuliwe nokuthathwa kwemali kunye nokuxhotyiswa ngezimali kwabagrogrisi. Umthetho omtsha ochasene nokuchaswa kwemali / wokulwa imali ubugrogrisi wamkelwa ngo-2014. Lo mthetho ufuna abasemagunyeni benze uvavanyo lomngcipheko ukuze kuchongwe umngcipheko kwaye ichaze amanyathelo okuthintela okanye ukunciphisa umngcipheko. Utshintsho lwenziwe kwiKhowudi yeNkqubo yoLwaphulo-mthetho kunye neKhowudi yoLwaphulo-mthetho. Ngapha koko, abasemagunyeni eUkraine banokuqonda okucacileyo malunga nemingcipheko kwaye bayasebenza ekuququzeleleni amakhaya ukulwa ukulwa nokubanjwa kwemali kunye nokuxhotyiswa ngezimali kwabagrogrisi.

I-Ukraine sele ithathe amanyathelo amakhulu ukuze ilwe nokuthathwa kwemali kunye nokuxhotyiswa ngezimali kwabagrogrisi. Isekho indawo yokuphuculwa. Ezinye iziphoso kunye nokungaqiniseki kuhlala kwinkqubo yokuhambelana ne-Ukraine. Esi sikhokelo sikwafuna ukuhanjiswa ngokwemigangatho yamazwe. Ngapha koko, ukuxhaphaza imali kufuneka kujongwe njengolwaphulo-mthetho olwahlukileyo, kungekuphela nje njengolwandiso lomsebenzi wolwaphulo-mthetho. Oku kuya kukhokelela ekutshutshisweni nasekugwetyweni okungakumbi. Uphando lwezezimali kufuneka luthathwe rhoqo kwaye uhlalutyo kunye nokubhaliweyo okuchazayo okuxhaphaza imali kunye nemingcipheko yokuxhasa ngemali ubugrogrisi kufuneka iphuculwe. Ezi zenzo zithathwa njengezona zenzo eziphambili e-Ukraine ngokubhekisele ekuchitheni imali nakwimali yokugrogrisa.

Ingxelo iyonke idityaniswa ngale linki.

isiphelo

Ukuchithwa kwemali kunye nokuxhotyiswa ngezimali kwabagrogrisi kubeka emngciphekweni omkhulu kuluntu lwethu. Ke, ezi zihloko ziqwalaselwa kwihlabathi liphela. INetherlands sele iphumeze amanyathelo athile okufumana kunye nokulwa ukuchithelwa kwemali kunye nokuxhotyiswa ngezimali kobugrogrisi. La manyathelo akabalulekanga kwimibutho yamaDatshi kuphela, kodwa anokusebenza nakwiinkampani ezisebenza ngokuwela umda. I-Wwft isebenza xa kukho ikhonkco kwi-Netherlands, njengoko kubonisiwe kwisigwebo esichazwe ngasentla. Kumaziko awela phantsi komgangatho weWwft, kubalulekile ukwazi ukuba ngoobani abathengi babo, ukuze bahambisane nomthetho waseDatshi. Esi sibophelelo sinokusebenza nakwimibutho yaseUkraine. Oku kungavela kunzima, kuba iUkraine ayikayenzi inkqubo ebanzi yokuchasa imali kunye neendlela zokuxhasa ubugrogrisi njengaseNetherlands.

Nangona kunjalo, ingxelo ye-MALIYVAL ibonisa ukuba i-Ukraine ithatha amanyathelo okulwa nokuthathwa kwemali kunye nokuxhotyiswa ngezimali kwabagrogrisi. I-Ukraine inolwazi oluphangaleleyo lokuxhaphaza imali kunye nemingcipheko yokuxhasa ngemali ubugrogrisi, elinyathelo lokuqala elibalulekileyo. Nangona kunjalo, isakhelo somthetho sisaqulathe iziphene kunye nokungaqiniseki okufuneka kulungiswe. Ukuxhaphaka kokusetyenziswa kwemali eUkraine kunye noqoqosho olukhulu oluhamba nalo lubeka emngciphekweni omkhulu kuluntu lwase-Ukraine. I-Ukraine ngokuqinisekileyo ibhukishe inkqubela kwinkqubo yayo yokuchaphaza imali kunye nemigaqo-nkqubo yokuxhasa ubugrogrisi, kodwa isekhona indawo yokuphucula. Inkqubo-sikhokelo yezomthetho yeNetherlands neUkraine ngokuthe ngcembe zikhula ngokusondeleleneyo, okuya kwenza kube lula ukuba amaqela amaDatshi kunye nawaseUkraine basebenzisane. Ukuza kuthi ga ngoku, kubalulekile ukuba amaqela anjalo aqonde ngenkqubo yezomthetho yase-Datshi neyase-Ukraine kunye nezinto eziyinyani, ukuze ahambisane nemithetho-siseko yokuthintela imali kunye neendlela zokulwa nzobugrogrisi.

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