I-Cryptocurrency: Qaphela umngcipheko wokuthobela

intshayelelo

Kuluntu lwethu oluvela ngokukhawuleza, i-cryptocurrency iya isanda. Okwangoku, zininzi iintlobo ze-cryptocurrency, ezinjengeBitcoin, Ethereum, kunye neLitecoin. Ii-Cryptocurrensets zikhethekileyo zedijithali, kwaye iimali kunye netekhnoloji igcinwe ikhuselekile ngokusebenzisa itekhnoloji ye-blockchain. Le teknoloji igcina irekhodi elikhuselekileyo lentengiselwano nganye nganye kwindawo enye. Akukho mntu ulawula i-blockchain kuba la matyathanga anikwa amandla kwikhompyuter nganye ene-cryptocurrency wallet. Itekhnoloji yeBlockchain ikwabonelela ngokungaziwa kwabasebenzisi be-cryptocurrency. Ukungabikho kolawulo kunye nokungaziwa kwabasebenzisi kunokubeka umngcipheko othile kubahwebi abafuna ukusebenzisa i-cryptocurrency kwinkampani yabo. Eli nqaku kukuqhubeka kwenqaku lethu elidlulileyo, 'I-Cryptocurrency: imiba esemthethweni yetekhnoloji yohlaziyo'. Ngelixa inqaku elidlulileyo lisondele ikakhulu kwimicimbi yezomthetho ngokubanzi ye-cryptocurrency, eli nqaku ligxile kumngcipheko abanini bamashishini abanokuthi bajongane nawo xa bejongana ne-cryptocurrency kunye nokubaluleka kokuthobela.

 

Umngcipheko wokukrokrela ukuxhaphaza imali

Ngelixa i-cryptocurrency ifumana ukuthandwa, isalawulwa e-Netherlands naseYurophu. Abezomthetho basebenza ekuphumezeni imigaqo eneenkcukacha, kodwa oku kuyinkqubo ende. Nangona kunjalo, iinkundla zikazwelonke zaseDatshi sele zidlulise izigwebo ezininzi kumatyala malunga ne-cryptocurrency. Nangona izigqibo ezimbalwa ezichaphazela imeko esemthethweni ye-cryptocurrency, iimeko ezininzi zazingaphakathi kulwaphulo-mthetho. Ukuxhaphaza imali kudlale indima enkulu kwezi zigqibo.

Ukutsala imali yinto ekufuneka ithathelwe ingqalelo ukuze uqiniseke ukuba umbutho wakho awukho phantsi kwekhowudi yecala lobuDatshi. Ukuxhaphaza imali sisenzo esisohlwayo phantsi komthetho wolwaphulo-mthetho waseDatshi. Oku kusekwe kumanqaku e-420bis, 420ter kunye ne-420 yeKhowudi yoLwaphulo-mthetho lwaseDatshi. Ukuthengiswa kwemali kungqinwa xa umntu efihla eyona nto, imvelaphi, ukuba ngumphambukeli okanye ukugxothwa kwento ethile elungileyo, okanye efihla ukuba ngubani na umntu oxhamlayo okanye ophethe izinto ezintle ngelixa esazi ukuba into elungileyo evela kwimisebenzi yolwaphulo-mthetho. Naxa umntu ebengayazi ngokucacileyo into yokuba into elungileyo ethatyathwe kwimisebenzi yolwaphulo-mthetho kodwa ebeqiqa ngelithi lo unjalo, unokufunyanwa enetyala lokuxhaphaza imali. Ezi zenzo zohlwaywa ngokuvalelwa ukuya kwiminyaka emine (kuba uyazi imvelaphi yolwaphulo-mthetho), ukuvalelwa entolongweni ukuya kunyaka omnye (ngokuba nomfanekiso oqinisekileyo) okanye ukuhlawuliswa imali eyi-euro eyi-67.000. Oku kusekwe kwinqaku lama-23 leKhowudi yoLwaphulo-mthetho lwaseDatshi. Umntu owenza lo mkhwa wokuxhaphaza imali unokuvalelwa ukuya kwiminyaka emithandathu.

Apha ngezantsi kukho imizekelo embalwa apho iinkundla zaseDatshi zigqithise ngokusetyenziswa kwe-cryptocurrency:

  • Kwakukho imeko apho umntu watyholwa ngokuxhaphaza imali. Wafumana imali efunyenwe ngokuguqula i-bitcoins ibe yimali ye-fiat. Ezi bitcoins zifunyenwe kwiwebhu emnyama, apho zifihlwa khona iidilesi ze-IP zabasebenzisi. Uphando lubonise ukuba iwebhusayithi emnyama isetyenziswa phantse ngokukodwa ekuthengiseni iimpahla ngokungekho semthethweni, ukuba ihlawulwe nge-bitcoins. Ke ngoko, inkundla ecinga ukuba i-bitcoins ezifunyenwe kwiwebhu emnyama ziyimvelaphi yolwaphulo-mthetho. Inkundla ithe umrhanelwa wafumana imali efunyenwe ngokuguqula i-bitcoins yemvelaphi yolwaphulo-mthetho ibe yimali ye-fiat. Umrhanelwa wayesazi ukuba iicrocoins zihlala zivela kulwaphulo mthetho. Nangona kunjalo, akazange aphande ngemvelaphi yemali ye-fiat ayifumeneyo. Ke ngoko, ulazi ngabom ithuba elibalulekileyo lokuba imali ayifumeneyo ifunyenwe ngemisebenzi engekho mthethweni. Waye wagwetywa ngokunyanzelwa imali. [1]
  • Kule meko, i-Fiscal Information kunye neNkonzo yoPhando (ngesiDatshi: FIOD) yaqala uphando kubarhwebi be-bitcoin. Umrhanelwa, kule meko, wanika i-bitcoins kubarhwebi kwaye wabaguqula ukuba babe imali ye-fiat. Umsolwa usebenzise i-wallet ye-intanethi apho kwagcinwa khona ii-bitcoins ezininzi, ezazivela kwiwebhu ebumnyama. Njengoko kukhankanyiwe kwimeko apha ngasentla, ezi bitcoins zithathwa njengezingekho mthethweni. Umrhanelwa uyala ukunika ingcaciso ngokubhekisele kwimvelaphi yee-bitcoins. Inkundla ithe umrhanelwa uyazi kakuhle imvelaphi engekho mthethweni ye-bitcoins kuba esiya kubarhwebi abaqinisekisa ukungaziwa kwabathengi babo kwaye babuze nekhomishini ephezulu yale nkonzo. Ke ngoko, inkundla ichaze iinjongo zomrhanelwa ezinokuthi zithathwe. Waye wagwetywa ngokunyanzelwa imali. [2]
  • Ityala elilandelayo lichaphazela ibhanki yaseDatshi, i-IN. I-ING yangena kwisivumelwano sokubhankisha kunye nomthengisi we-bitcoin. Njengebhanki, i-ING ineemfanelo ezithile zokujonga kunye nophando. Bafumanise ukuba umthengi wabo usebenzisa imali ezinkozo ukuthenga ii-bitcoins zomntu wesithathu. I-ND yaluphelisa ulwalamano lwayo kuba imvelaphi yeentlawulo ngemali ayinakutshekishwa kwaye imali inokufumaneka kwimisebenzi engekho mthethweni. I-UI yaziva ngathi abasenakho ukuzalisekisa uxanduva lwabo lwe-KYC kuba abanakuqinisekisa ukuba iiakhawunti zabo azisetyenziswanga ekuhlawulweni kwemali kunye nokuthintela umngcipheko malunga nokunyaniseka. Inkundla yathi umthengi we-ING akwanelanga ekuqinisekiseni ukuba imali yayisiqalo esisemthethweni. Ke, i-ING yavunyelwa ukuba iphelise ubudlelwane bebhanki. [3]

Ezi zigwebo zibonisa ukuba ukusebenza kunye ne-cryptocurrency kunokubeka umngcipheko xa kuziwa ekuthobeleni. Xa imvelaphi ye-cryptocurrency ingaziwa, kwaye imali inokuvela kwiwebhu emnyama, ukurhanela ukuxhaphaza imali kunokuvela ngokulula.

ukuthobela

Kuba i-cryptocurrency ayikalawulwa kwaye ayaziwa ekuthengisweni, yindlela enomtsalane yokuhlawula eza kusetyenziswa kwizenzo zolwaphulo-mthetho. Ke ngoko, i-cryptocurrency inohlobo oluthile lokuchazwa kakubi eNetherlands. Oku kubonisiwe kwinto yokuba iNkonzo yezeMali yaseDatshi kunye neGunya leeMarike licebisa ngokuchasene nokuthengisa kwii-cryptocurrensets. Bacacisa ukuba ukusebenzisa i-cryptocurrensets kubeka umngcipheko ngokubhekiselele kulwaphulo-mthetho lwezoqoqosho, kuba ukuxhaphaza imali, inkohliso, ubuqhetseba kunye nokukhohlisa kunokuvela ngokulula. [4] Oku kuthetha ukuba kuya kufuneka uchaneke kakhulu ekuthobeleni xa ujongene nemali yedijithali. Kuya kufuneka ubonakalise ukuba imali yedatha oyifumanayo ayifunyanwa ngemisebenzi engekho mthethweni. Kuya kufuneka ubenakho ukubonisa ukuba uyiphandile nyani imvelaphi ye-imali yedatha oyifumeneyo. Oku kunokuba nzima kubantu abasebenzisa imali yedijithali ngokuhlala bengaziwa. Rhoqo, xa inkundla yaseDatshi inesigwebo malunga nemali yedijithali, kuphakathi kolwaphulo mthetho. Okwangoku, abasemagunyeni abalubeki esweni urhwebo kwii-cryptocurrensets. Nangona kunjalo, imali yedijithali inayo ingqalelo yabo. Ke ngoko, xa inkampani inobudlelwane kunye ne-cryptocurrency, abasemagunyeni baya kuba belumke ngakumbi. Abasemagunyeni baya kufuna ukwazi ukuba i-cryptocurrency ifumaneka njani kwaye yintoni imvelaphi yemali. Ukuba awukwazi ukuyiphendula ngokufanelekileyo le mibuzo, kusenokuvela urhano lokuxhaphaza imali okanye amanye amatyala olwaphulo-mthetho kwaye uphando malunga nombutho wakho lungaqala.

Ukulawulwa kwe-cryptocurrency

Njengoko kuchaziwe apha ngasentla, i-cryptocurrency ayikalawulwa. Nangona kunjalo, urhwebo kunye nokusetyenziswa kwemali ye-imali yedatha mhlawumbi kuya kulawulwa ngokungqongqo, ngenxa yomngcipheko wolwaphulo-mthetho kunye nezemali kubandakanya. Ukulawulwa kwemali yedijithali sisihloko sencoko kwihlabathi liphela. INgxowa-mali yeHlabathi yeZizwe eziManyeneyo (umbutho weZizwe eziManyeneyo osebenzisana nentsebenziswano kwezemali kwilizwe liphela, ekhusela uzinzo kwezemali nokuququzelela urhwebo lwamazwe aphesheya) ifuna ulungelelwaniso lwehlabathi kwii-cryptocurrensets njengoko yayilumkisile ngobungozi bezezimali nolwaphulo-mthetho. [5] I-European Union ixoxa malunga nokulawula okanye ukubeka iliso kwi-cryptocurrensets, nangona ingekenzi mthetho othile. Ngapha koko, ukulawulwa kwemali yedijithali ngumxholo wengxoxo kumazwe aliqela, afana ne China, South-Korea, ne Russia. La mazwe athatha okanye afuna ukuthatha amanyathelo ukumisela imigaqo malunga ne-cryptocurrensets. ENetherlands, iNkonzo yezeMali kunye noGunyaziso lweeMarike bachaze ukuba iifemu zotyalo-mali zinomsebenzi oqhelekileyo wokukhathalela xa zinikezela nge-Bitcoin-future kubathengisi bezentengiso eNetherlands. Oku kubandakanya ukuba ezi femu zotyalo-mali kufuneka zikhathalele umdla wabathengi bazo ngendlela enobungcali, enobulungisa nethembekileyo. [6] Ingxoxo yehlabathi jikelele malunga nokulawulwa kwemali yedijithali ibonisa ukuba imibutho emininzi icinga ukuba kufanelekile ukuseka uhlobo oluthile lomthetho.

isiphelo

Kukhuselekile ukuba i-cryptocurrency iyanda. Nangona kunjalo, abantu babonakala belibala ukuba ukurhweba kunye nokusebenzisa ezi zixhobo zemali kunokubandakanya umngcipheko othile. Ngaphambi kokuba uyazi, unokuwela ngaphakathi kwinqanaba leKhowudi yoLwaphulo-mthetho lweDatshi xa ujongene ne-cryptocurrency. Ezi mali zihlala zinxulunyaniswa nemisebenzi yolwaphulo-mthetho, ngakumbi ukuxhaphaza imali. Ukuthobela kubaluleke kakhulu kwiinkampani ezingafuni kutshutshiswa ngenxa yolwaphulo-mthetho. Ukwazi imvelaphi ye-cryptocurrencies kudlala indima enkulu kule. Ukusukela ukuba i-cryptocurrency ine-connotation engalunganga, amazwe kunye nemibutho iyaphikisana malunga nokuba kungamiselwa imigaqo malunga ne-cryptocurrency. Nangona amanye amazwe sele ethathe amanyathelo ngakummiselo, kusenokuthatha ixesha ngaphambi kokuba umthetho wehlabathi ufezekiswe. Ke ngoko, kubaluleke kakhulu kwiinkampani ukuba zilumke xa ujongene ne-cryptocurrency kwaye uqiniseke ukuba unake ingqalelo ukuthobela.

Iinkcukacha zoqhagamshelwano

Ukuba unemibuzo okanye uluvo emva kokufunda eli nqaku, nceda ukhululeke ukunxibelelana noMaxim Hodak, igqwetha elisemthethweni Law & More ngokusebenzisa [imeyile ikhuselwe], okanye uTom Meevis, igqwetha kumthetho Law & More ngokusebenzisa [imeyile ikhuselwe], okanye tsalela umnxeba +31 (0) 40-3690680.

[1] ECLI:NL:RBMNE:2017:5716, https://uitspraken.rechtspraak.nl/inziendocument?id=ECLI:NL:RBMNE:2017:5716.

[2] ECLI:NL:RBROT:2017:8992, https://uitspraken.rechtspraak.nl/inziendocument?id=ECLI:NL:RBROT:2017:8992.

[3] ECLI:NL:RBAMS:2017:8376, https://uitspraken.rechtspraak.nl/inziendocument?id=ECLI:NL:RBAMS:2017:8376.

[4] I-Autoriteit Financiële Markten, 'Yisa ii-cryptocurrensets, https://www.afm.nl/nl-nl/nieuws/2017/nov/risico-cryptocurrencies.

[5] Ingxelo Iinkonzo zeFintech nezezezimali: Ukuqwalaselwa kokuqala, Ingxowa mali yezezimali yamazwe aphesheya ka-2017.

[6] I-Autoriteit Financiële Markten, 'iBitcoin Futures: AFM op', https://www.afm.nl/nl-nl/nieuws/2017/dec/bitcoin-futures-zorgplicht.

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