I-Cryptocurrency: I-EU kunye neeNqaku zeMithetho zaseDatshi zeTekhnoloji yoHlaziyo

intshayelelo

Ukukhula kwehlabathi kunye nokwanda okuthandwayo kwemali ye-cryptocurrency kukhokelele kwimibuzo malunga nemigaqo elawulayo yale nto intsha yezemali. Iimali ezisebenzayo zidijithali ngokukodwa kwaye zilungelelaniswe ngothungelwano olwaziwa njenge-blockchain, ekuyi-ledger ekwi-intanethi egcina irekhodi elikhuselekileyo lentengiselwano nganye konke kwindawo enye. Akukho mntu ulawula i-blockchain, ngenxa yokuba la makhonkco athatyathwa kwikhompyuter nganye ene-Bitcoin wallet. Oku kuthetha ukuba akukho ziko elinye elilawula inethiwekhi, okuthetha ukuba ubukho bemingcipheko emininzi yezemali kunye nangokomthetho.

Iziqalo zeBlockchain zamkele iiMali eziQalayo zezeMali (ii-ICO) njengendlela yokunyusa imali yokuqala kwangoko. I-ICO ngumnikelo apho inkampani inokuthengisa khona amathokheni edijithali kuluntu ukuze ixhase imisebenzi kwaye ihlangabezane nezinye iinjongo zeshishini. [1] Kwakhona ii-ICO azilawulwa yimigaqo ethile okanye iiarhente zikarhulumente. Oku kusilela kommiselo kunyuse inkxalabo malunga nobungozi obunokubakho kubatyali mali. Ngenxa yoko, ukungazinzi kuye kwaba yinkxalabo. Ngelishwa, ukuba umtyali mali uphulukana nemali ngexesha lale nkqubo, abanazo iindlela ezilinganiselweyo zokubuyisa imali elahlekileyo.

I-Cryptocurrency - i-EU kunye neeNdawo zoMthetho zaseDatshi zeTekhnoloji yoHlaziyo

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Iimali ezichaziweyo kwinqanaba leYurophu

Umngcipheko onxulumene nokusetyenziswa kwemali ebonakalayo uphakamisa isidingo se-European Union kunye namaziko ayo ukulawula. Nangona kunjalo, ukumiselwa kwinqanaba le-European Union kuntsonkothileyo, ngenxa yokutshintsha kwemigaqo ye-EU nokulawula ukungangqinelani kuwo onke amazwe angamalungu.

Okwangoku iimali ezifumanekayo azilawulwa kwinqanaba le-EU kwaye azijongiswanga okanye zibekwe esweni naliphi na igunya loluntu le-EU, nangona ukubandakanyeka kwezi nkqubo kuchaphazela abasebenzisi ukuba babenetyala, imali engasebenziyo, umngcipheko wokusebenza kunye nomthetho. Oku kuthetha ukuba abasemagunyeni kuzwelonke kufuneka baqwalasele ukuba ngaba banenjongo yokwamkela okanye ukwenza ngokusesikweni kunye nokulawula i-cryptocurrency.

Iimali ezingasentla eNetherlands

NgokomThetho woLawulo lwezeMali waseDatshi (FSA) imali ye-elektroniki imele ixabiso lemali eligcinwe ngombane okanye ngemagnethi. Eli xabiso lemali kwenzelwe ukuba lisetyenziselwe ukwenza intengiselwano yentlawulo kwaye linokusetyenziselwa ukwenza iintlawulo kwamanye amaqela kunale ikhuphe imali ye-elektroniki. [2] Iimali ezikhoyo azinakuchazwa njengemali ye-elektroniki, kuba ayizizo zonke iindlela ezisemthethweni ezifezekiswayo. Ukuba i-cryptocurrency ayinakuchazwa ngokusemthethweni njengemali okanye imali ye-elektroniki, inokuthi ichazwe njani? Kwimeko yoMthetho woLawulo lwezeMali waseDatshi i-cryptocurrency yindawo nje yotshintshiselwano. Wonke umntu unenkululeko yokurhweba, ngenxa yoko akufuneki imvume ngohlobo lwelayisensi. Umphathiswa wezeziMali ubonakalise ukuba uhlaziyo lwenkcazo esemthethweni yemali ye-elektroniki ayikanqweneleki, ngenxa yomda omiselweyo we-bitcoin, inqanaba elisezantsi lokwamkelwa, kunye nobudlelwane obulinganiselweyo kuqoqosho lokwenyani. Ugxininise ukuba umthengi unoxanduva lokusebenzisa. [3]

NgokweNkundla yeSithili saseDatshi (iOverijssel) kunye noMphathiswa wezeMali waseDatshi imali ebonakalayo, enje ngeBitcoin, inezinga lotshintshiselwano. [4] Kwisibheno iNkundla yaseDatshi yathathela ingqalelo ukuba ii-bitcoins zinokufaneleka njengezinto ezithengisiweyo njengoko kubhekisiwe kwinqaku le-7: 36 DCC. Inkundla yesiBheno yaseDatshi ikwatsho ukuba i-bitcoins ayinakulungelwa njengethenda esemthethweni kodwa njengesixhobo sokutshintshiselana. Ngokwahlukileyo, iNkundla yezoBulungisa yase-Yuropu yagweba ukuba i-bitcoins kufuneka iphathwe njengendlela yokuhlawula, iphakamisa ngokungathanga ngqo ii-bitcoins ziyafana nethenda esemthethweni. [5]

isiphelo

Ngenxa yobunzima obubandakanya ukumiselwa kwemigaqo ye-cryptocurrencies, kunokucingelwa ukuba iNkundla yezoBulungisa ye-EU kuya kufuneka ibandakanyeke ekucacisweni kwesigama. Kwimeko yamazwe angamaLungu akhethe ukulungelelanisa isigama ngokwahlukileyo kumthetho we-EU, ubunzima bunokuvela ngokunxulumene nokutolikwa ngokuhambelana nomthetho we-EU. Ukusuka kolu luvo, kubalulekile ukucebisa kumaLungu angamaLungu ukuba alandele isigama somthetho we-EU ngelixa esenza lo mthetho kumthetho welizwe.

Inguqulelo epheleleyo yeli phepha mhlophe iyafumaneka ngale khonkco.

Iinkcukacha zoqhagamshelwano

Ukuba unemibuzo okanye izimvo emva kokufunda eli nqaku, nceda ukhululeke ukunxibelelana noMnumzana Mnu. UMaxim Hodak, igqwetha-mthetho-kwa- Law & More nge-maxim.hodak@lawandmore.nl, okanye uMnu. UTom Meevis, igqwetha kumthetho Law & More nge tom.meevis@lawandmore.nl, okanye utsalele umnxeba ku-31 (0) 40-3690680.

[1] C. Bovaird, ICO vs. IPO: Uthini umahluko ?, Ijenali yeNtengiso yeBitcoin ngoSeptemba 2017.

[2] UMthetho woLawulo lwezeMali, icandelo 1: 1

[3] Umphathiswa weveni Ezezimali, iBeantwo Record van kamervragen ngaphezulu kwe het gebruik van en to toichicht op nieuwe digitale betaalmiddelen zoals de bitcoin, nge-2013 kaDisemba.

[4] ECLI: NL: IINKCUKACHA: 2014: 2667.

[5] ECLI: EU: C: 2015: 718.

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