I-Cryptocurrency: I-EU kunye neeNqaku zeMithetho zaseDatshi zeTekhnoloji yoHlaziyo

intshayelelo

Ukukhula kwehlabathi kunye nokwanda okuthandwayo kwemali ye-cryptocurrency kukhokelele kwimibuzo malunga nemigaqo elawulayo yale nto intsha yezemali. Iimali ezisebenzayo zidijithali ngokukodwa kwaye zilungelelaniswe ngothungelwano olwaziwa njenge-blockchain, ekuyi-ledger ekwi-intanethi egcina irekhodi elikhuselekileyo lentengiselwano nganye konke kwindawo enye. Akukho mntu ulawula i-blockchain, ngenxa yokuba la makhonkco athatyathwa kwikhompyuter nganye ene-Bitcoin wallet. Oku kuthetha ukuba akukho ziko elinye elilawula inethiwekhi, okuthetha ukuba ubukho bemingcipheko emininzi yezemali kunye nangokomthetho.

Ukuqala kweBlokchain kuye kwamkela iiOnline zemali zokuqala (ii-ICO) njengendlela yokunyusa imali yokuqala. I-ICO ngumnikelo apho inkampani inokuthengisa uluntu kwiithokheni zedijithali ukuze ixhase imisebenzi kwaye ihlangane nezinye iinjongo zeshishini. [1] Kananjalo ii-ICO azilawulwa yimigaqo ethile okanye ziiarhente zikarhulumente. Oku kunqongophala kwemigaqo kuphakamise inkxalabo malunga nobungozi obunokubakho kubatyali-zimali. Ngenxa yoko, ukuguquguquka kuye kwaba yinkxalabo. Ngelishwa, ukuba umtyali mali ulahlekelwa yimali ngeli xesha le nkqubo, abanalo ikhosi emiselweyo yokufumana imali elahlekileyo.

I-Cryptocurrency - i-EU kunye neeNdawo zoMthetho zaseDatshi zeTekhnoloji yoHlaziyo

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Iimali ezichaziweyo kwinqanaba leYurophu

Umngcipheko onxulumene nokusetyenziswa kwemali ebonakalayo uphakamisa isidingo se-European Union kunye namaziko ayo ukulawula. Nangona kunjalo, ukumiselwa kwinqanaba le-European Union kuntsonkothileyo, ngenxa yokutshintsha kwemigaqo ye-EU nokulawula ukungangqinelani kuwo onke amazwe angamalungu.

Okwangoku iimali ezifumanekayo azilawulwa kwinqanaba le-EU kwaye azijongiswanga okanye zibekwe esweni naliphi na igunya loluntu le-EU, nangona ukubandakanyeka kwezi nkqubo kuchaphazela abasebenzisi ukuba babenetyala, imali engasebenziyo, umngcipheko wokusebenza kunye nomthetho. Oku kuthetha ukuba abasemagunyeni kuzwelonke kufuneka baqwalasele ukuba ngaba banenjongo yokwamkela okanye ukwenza ngokusesikweni kunye nokulawula i-cryptocurrency.

Iimali ezingasentla eNetherlands

Ngokwe-Dutch Financial Supervision Act (FSA) imali ye-elektroniki imele ixabiso lemali eligcinwe ngombane okanye ngomatshini. Eli xabiso lemali lenzelwe ukuba lisetyenziselwe ukwenza izinto ngentlawulo kwaye linokusetyenziselwa ukwenza intlawulo kwamanye amaqela kunaleyo ikhuphe imali ye-elektroniki. [2] Iimali ezisebenzayo azinakuchazwa njengemali ye-elektroniki, kuba ayizizo zonke iikhrayitheriya ezisemthethweni ezifikelelweyo. Ukuba i-cryptocurrency ayinakuchazwa ngokusemthethweni njengemali okanye imali nge-elektroniki, inokuchazwa njani? Kwimeko ye-Dutch Financial Supervision Act i-cryptocurrency yinto nje ephakathi yokutshintshiselana. Wonke umntu unenkululeko yokuzibandakanya kurhwebo oluguqula izinto, ngenxa yoko imvume ayifumaneki kwimvume yelayisensi. UMphathiswa wezeziMali ubonise ukuba uhlengahlengiso lwenkcazo esemthethweni yemali ye-elektroniki alunqweneleki, unikwe umda we-bitcoin, inqanaba eliphantsi lokwamkelwa, kunye nolwalamano olulinganiselweyo kuqoqosho lwangempela. Ucacisile ukuba umthengi unoxanduva lokusebenzisa kwabo. [3]

Ngokwe-Nkundla yeSithili yeDatshi (i-Overijssel) kunye noMphathiswa wezeziMali waseDatshi imali esetyenziswayo, efana neBitcoin, inendawo yokutshintsha. [4] Kwisibheno iNkundla yaseDatshi yaqwalasela ukuba iitcoins zinokufaneleka njengezinto ezithengisiweyo njengoko kuchaziwe kwinqaku 7:36 DCC. INkundla yeZibheno yaseDatshi ikwatsho ukuba i-bitcoins ayinakulungelwa ukuba ithenda yomthetho kodwa njengendawo yotshintshiselwano. Ngokwahlukileyo, iNkundla Yobulungisa yaseYurophu yagweba ukuba i-bitcoins kufuneka iphathwe njengendlela yokuhlawula, ukucebisa ngokungangqalanga i-bitcoins iyafana nethenda esemthethweni. [5]

isiphelo

Ngenxa yobunzima obubandakanya ukumiselwa kwemigaqo ye-cryptocurrencies, kunokucingelwa ukuba iNkundla yezoBulungisa ye-EU kuya kufuneka ibandakanyeke ekucacisweni kwesigama. Kwimeko yamazwe angamaLungu akhethe ukulungelelanisa isigama ngokwahlukileyo kumthetho we-EU, ubunzima bunokuvela ngokunxulumene nokutolikwa ngokuhambelana nomthetho we-EU. Ukusuka kolu luvo, kubalulekile ukucebisa kumaLungu angamaLungu ukuba alandele isigama somthetho we-EU ngelixa esenza lo mthetho kumthetho welizwe.

Inguqulelo epheleleyo yeli phepha mhlophe iyafumaneka ngale khonkco.

Iinkcukacha zoqhagamshelwano

Ukuba unemibuzo okanye izimvo emva kokufunda eli nqaku, nceda ukhululeke ukunxibelelana noMnumzana Mnu. UMaxim Hodak, igqwetha-mthetho-kwa- Law & More via maxim.hodak@lawandmore.nl, or mr. Tom Meevis, attorney-at-law at Law & More via tom.meevis@lawandmore.nl, or call +31 (0)40-3690680.

[1] C. Bovaird, ICO vs. IPO: Yintoni umahluko? I-Bitcoin Market Journal kaSeptemba 2017.

[2] UMthetho woLawulo lweMali, icandelo 1: 1

[3] Umphathiswa Ezezimali, iBeantwo Record van kamervragen ngaphezulu kwe het gebruik van en to toichicht op nieuwe digitale betaalmiddelen zoals de bitcoin, nge-2013 kaDisemba.

[4] ECLI: NL: RBOVE: 2014: 2667.

[5] ECLI: EU: C: 2015: 718.

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