Uqhawulo-mtshato noQhawulo lwaBazali. Yintoni ekufuneka uyazi?

Utshatile okanye ubambisene naye? Kwimeko enjalo, umthetho wethu usekwe kumgaqo wokukhathalela nokukhulisa abantwana ngabo bobabini abazali, ngokweNqaku 1: 247 BW. Malunga ne-60,000 yabantwana bajamelana noqhawulo mtshato kubazali babo minyaka le. Nangona kunjalo, nasemva koqhawulo-mtshato, abantwana banelungelo lokhathalelo olulinganayo kunye nokukhuliswa ngabazali bobabini nabazali abanelungelo lokugcina kunye, baqhubeke nokusebenzisa eli gunya ngokudibeneyo ngokweNqaku 1: 251 leKhowudi yaseDatshi. Ngokuchasene nexesha elidlulileyo, abazali ke bahlala bephethe igunya elidibeneyo labazali.

Uqhawulo-mtshato noQhawulo lwaBazali. Yintoni ekufuneka uyazi?

Ukugcinwa kwabazali kungachazwa njengamalungelo kunye noxanduva lwabazali ngokubhekisele ekukhuliseni nasekukhathaleleni abantwana babo abancinci kwaye inxulumene nale miba ilandelayo: umntu womntwana, ukulawulwa kwezinto zakhe kunye nokumelwa kwizenzo zoluntu zombini nangaphandle kokugweba. Ngokukodwa, ichaphazela uxanduva lwabazali lokukhulisa ubuntu, impilo-ntle yomzimba kunye nokukhuseleka komntwana, okuthintela ukusetyenziswa kobundlobongela bengqondo okanye bomzimba. Ukongeza, ukusukela ngo-2009, ukugcinwa kukwabandakanya uxanduva lomzali lokuphucula ukukhula kobudlelwane phakathi komntwana nomnye umzali. Ngapha koko, indlu yowiso-mthetho ikubona kufanelekile ukuba umntwana abe nonxibelelwano lobuqu nabazali bobabini.

Nangona kunjalo, iimeko zinokucingelwa apho ukuqhubeka kwegunya labazali kwaye ngenxa yoko ukunxibelelana ngokobuqu nomnye wabazali emva koqhawulo-mtshato kungenakwenzeka okanye kunqweneleka. Kungenxa yoko le nto iNqaku 1: 251a loMgaqo woLuntu waseDatshi uqukethe, ngaphandle komgaqo, ukubanakho ukucela inkundla ukuba inike ilungelo lokugcina umntwana kumzali omnye emva koqhawulo mtshato. Kuba le yimeko ekhethekileyo, inkundla iya kunika igunya labazali ngezizathu ezibini kuphela:

  1. ukuba kukho umngcipheko ongamkelekanga wokuba umntwana angabanjiswa okanye alahleke phakathi kwabazali kwaye akulindelwanga ukuba ukuphuculwa okwaneleyo kuya kufumaneka kwikamva elibonakalayo, okanye
  2. ukubangaba kufuneka kutshintshwe ilungelo lokugcina umntwana ukuze kulungelwe yena.

Indlela yokuqala

Umgaqo wokuqala uphuhlisiwe kwimeko yomthetho kunye novavanyo lokuba ingaba le khrayitheriya iyafezekiswa na, inomdla kakhulu. Umzekelo, ukunqongophala konxibelelwano oluhle phakathi kwabazali kunye nokusilela okulula ekuthobeleni ulungiselelo lofikelelo lwabazali akuthethi ngokuzenzekelayo ukuba kumdla womntwana, igunya labazali kufuneka linikezelwe komnye wabazali. [1] Ngelixa izicelo zokususwa kwelungelo lokugcina kunye kunye nokunikezelwa kwelungelo lokugcina kuphela komnye wabazali kwimeko apho naluphi na uhlobo lonxibelelwano lwalungekho kwaphela [2], kungenzeka ukuba kwabakho ubundlobongela emakhaya, ukulandela, izoyikiso [3] apho umzali onenkathalo ecwangciswe ngendlela ecaphukisayo nomnye umzali [4], wanikwa. Ngokumalunga nenqobo yesibini, ukuqiqa kufuneka kuqinisekiswe zizinto ezaneleyo zokuba igunya labazali eliyintloko-ntloko liyimfuneko kulungiselela umntwana. Umzekelo wale khrayitheriya yimeko apho kufuneka kwenziwe izigqibo ezibalulekileyo malunga nomntwana kwaye abazali abakwazi ukubonisana nomntwana kwikamva elibonakalayo kunye nokuvumela ukuthathwa kwezigqibo ukuba kwenzeke ngokufanelekileyo nangokukhawuleza, oko kukuthi ngokuchasene nomdla womntwana. [5] Ngokubanzi, ijaji iyathandabuza ukuguqula ukugcinwa ngokudibeneyo kube lilungelo elinye lokugcina, ngokuqinisekileyo kwithuba lokuqala emva koqhawulo mtshato.

Ngaba unqwenela ukuba negunya lokuba ngumzali kubantwana bakho wedwa emva koqhawulo-mtshato? Kwimeko apho, kuya kufuneka uqalise ngokufaka isicelo sokufumana igunya labazali enkundleni. Isikhalazo kufuneka siqulathe isizathu sokuba kutheni ufuna nje ukuba nelungelo lokugcina umntwana. Kufuneka igqwetha kule nkqubo. Igqwetha lakho lilungiselela isicelo, limisela ukuba ngawaphi amaxwebhu ongezelelweyo ekufuneka liwafakile kwaye lingenise isicelo enkundleni. Ukuba isicelo solondolozo lodwa singenisiwe, omnye umzali okanye abanye abantu abanomdla baya kunikwa ithuba lokuphendula kwesi sicelo. Kanye kwinkundla, inkqubo emalunga nokunikezelwa kwegunya lobuzali ingathatha ixesha elide: ubuncinci iinyanga ezintathu ukuya ngaphezulu konyaka omnye, kuxhomekeke kubunzima betyala.

Kumatyala obundlobongela, ijaji ihlala icela iBhodi yoKhathalelo loMntwana kunye neBhodi yoKhuseleko ukuba yenze uphando kwaye ikhuphe neengcebiso (art. 810 umhlathi 1 DCCP) Ukuba ibhunga liqala uphando ngesicelo sejaji, oku kuyakuchazeka kulandelwe inkqubo. Injongo yolo phando yiBhodi yoKhathalelo loMntwana noKhuseleko kukuxhasa abazali ekusombululeni ukungavisisani kwabo malunga nelungelo lokugcina umntwana ngendlela efanelekileyo. Kuphela xa oku kungakhokeleli kwiziphumo kwiiveki ezi-4 kuphela apho ibhunga liya kuthi liqhubeke nokuqokelela ulwazi olufunekayo kwaye likhuphe nengcebiso. Emva koko, inkundla ingasinika okanye isikhabe isicelo segunya lokuba ngumzali. Ijaji ihlala isinika isicelo ukuba ibona ukuba imiqathango yesicelo ifezekisiwe, akukho kuchaswa kwisicelo sokugcinwa kwaye ukugcinwa kukona kulungiselela umntwana. Ngamanye amaxesha ijaji iyasikhaba isicelo.

At Law & More Siyaqonda ukuba uqhawulo-mtshato lixesha elinzima ngokweemvakalelo kuwe. Kwangaxeshanye, kububulumko ukucinga ngegunya lobuzali ebantwaneni bakho. Ukuqonda kakuhle imeko kunye nokukhetha kubalulekile. Law & More inokukunceda ubone imeko yakho yezomthetho kwaye, ukuba unqwenela, uthathe isicelo sokufumana igunya lomzali omnye ezandleni zakho. Ngaba uyazibona kwezi meko zichazwe apha ngasentla, ngaba ufuna ukuba kuphela komzali oza kugcina umntwana wakho okanye unayo nayiphi na imibuzo? Nceda unxibelelane namagqwetha ka Law & More.

[1] HR 10 septemba 1999, ECLI: NL: HR: 1999: ZC2963; HR 19 aprili 2002, ECLI: NL: PHR: 2002: AD9143.

[2] HR 30 septemba 2011, ECLI: NL: HR: 2011: BQ8782.

[3] Hof 's-Hertogenbosch 1 maart 2011, ECLI: NL: GHSGR: 2011: BP6694.

[4] HR 9 juli 2010 ECLI: NL: HR: 2010: BM4301.

[5] IHof Amsterdam 8 Agasti 2017, ECLI: NL: GHAMS: 2017: 3228.

isabelo
Law & More B.V.