Ukhuseleko lwezezimali ngaphakathi komthetho ophatheleneyo

Koosomashishini, ukufumana ukhuseleko lwezemali kubaluleke kakhulu. Xa ungena kwisivumelwano nelinye iqela, ufuna ukuqinisekisa ukuba elinye iqabane lizalisekisa uxanduva lokuhlawula ngokwesivumelwano. Ukuba ubonelela ngemali, okanye wenza utyalomali ngeenzuzo zomnye umntu, kwakhona ufuna isiqinisekiso sokuba isixa osibonisileyo siya kubuyiswa. Ngamanye amagama, ufuna ukufumana ukhuseleko lwezemali. Ukufumana ukhuseleko lwezemali kuqinisekisa ukuba umbolekisi unemali ebambeleyo xa efumanisa ukuba ibango lakhe aliyi kuzalisekiswa. Kukho amathuba oosomashishini kunye neenkampani zokufumana ukhuseleko lwezemali. Kule nqaku, uxanduva oluninzi, i-escrow, (inkampani yabazali) isiqinisekiso, i-403-isibhengezo, imali mboleko kunye nesibambiso ziya kuxoxwa.

Ukhuseleko lwezezimali ngaphakathi komthetho ophatheleneyo

1. Amatyala aliqela

Kwimeko yamatyala aliqela, ekwabizwa ngokuba yimfanelo edibeneyo, akukho mfuneko yokuba athethe isiqinisekiso esikhutshiweyo, kodwa ukhona umntu ombolekayo ophatha uxanduva kwabanye abanamatyala. Amatyala aliqela avela kwinqaku le-6: 6 leKhowudi yaseDatshi. Imizekelo yamatyala aliqela kubudlelwane bezorhwebo ngamaqabane entsebenzo anetyala ngokudibeneyo kumatyala entsebenziswano okanye abalawuli bequmrhu elisemthethweni elinokuthi, phantsi kwemeko ezithile, libe nobutyala kumatyala eenkampani. Amatyala aliqela ahlala esungulwa njengokhuseleko kwisivumelwano phakathi kwamaqela. Umgaqo wokutshixwa kukuba, xa ukusebenza okuvela kwisivumelwano kubangelwe ngababini okanye nangaphezulu abanamatyala, ngamnye uzibophelele kwisabelo esilinganayo. Banokunyanzelwa kuphela ukuba bazalisekise icandelo labo lesivumelwano. Nangona kunjalo, amatyala aliqela akodwa kulo mthetho. Kwimeko yamatyala aliqela, kukho intsebenzo ekufuneka yenziwe ngababini okanye nangaphezulu abanamatyala, kodwa apho ityala ngalinye linokubanjwa ngokwahlukeneyo ukwenza konke ukusebenza. Lowo ubolekayo unelungelo lokuzalisekisa isivumelwano esivela kuye wonke umntu onamatyala. Ke ngoko, umntu obolekwa imali unokukhetha ukuba ngubani na onamatyala afuna ukujongana naye aze ke afune isixa esipheleleyo esivela kulo mntu unetyala. Xa umntu onetyala ehlawulwa yonke loo mali, abo babini abanatyala abanatyala nakubani na.

1.1 Ilungelo lokubuyela

Abo banamatyala banembambano yokuhlawulwa omnye komnye, ke ityala elalihlawulwe ngumntu omnye onamatyala kufuneka lihlawulwe kubo bonke abanamatyala. Oku kubizwa ngokuba lilungelo lokubuyela. Ilungelo lokubuyela endaweni yelungelo lilungelo lokuhlawulwa komntu onamatyala okubuyisa into ayihlawuleleyo komnye umntu onetyala. Xa umntu onetyala ebenetyala lokuhlawula amatyala kwaye ahlawule lonke ityala, ufumana ilungelo lokufumana kwakhona eli tyala kulowo ubolekisana naye.

Ukuba umntu obolekayo akasafuni kubekwa tyala ngento yokuba ebehlawula kunye nabanye abanatyala, unokucela umntu obambeleyo ukuba amhlawule kwityala elithile. Umzekelo wale yimeko apho umntu onetyala engena kwisivumelwano semali mboleko kunye neqabane, kodwa unqwenela ukuyishiya inkampani. Kule meko, ukugxothwa okubhaliweyo kwamatyala amaninzi kufuneka kusoloko kutsalwa ngumntu obolekayo; Ukuzibophelela ngomlomo kubaxhasi bakho ukuba baya kuhlawula amatyala akwanelanga. Ukuba abo unamatyala nawe awukwazi okanye ungasifezekisi esi sivumelwano somlomo, umntu obolekayo usenokubanga ityala lakho lonke. 

1.2. Imfuneko yemvume

Umlingane otshatileyo okanye obhalisiweyo walowo unetyala onoxanduva olukhulu ukhuselwe ngumthetho. Ngokwenqaku 1:88 umhlathi 1 sub c Dutch Civil Code, iqabane lifuna imvume kwelinye iqabane ukuba lingene kwizivumelwano ezibophelela kulo njengolowo unetyala ngokulingeneyo, ngaphandle kwezinto zeshishini eziqhelekileyo kwinkampani. Oku kubizwa ngokuba yimfuneko yemvume. Eli nqaku linenjongo yokukhusela abalingane kwizenzo zomthetho ezinokubangela umngcipheko omkhulu wemali. Xa umntu obolekayo ephethe umntu abambisene naye ngokulingeneyo kulo lonke ibango, oku kunokuba neziphumo kwiqabane lomlingane. Nangona kunjalo, kukho okwahlukileyo kule mfuneko yemvume. Ngokwenqaku 1:88 umhlathi 5 iKhowudi yoLuntu yaseDatshi, imvume ayifuneki xa umlawuli wenkampani enamatyala alinganiselweyo okanye inkampani yabucala enamatyala (i-Dutch NV kunye ne-BV) ingene kwisivumelwano, ngelixa lo mlawuli eyedwa okanye kunye Nabaphathi-mlawuli, umnini wesininzi sezabelo kwaye ukuba isivumelwano senziwe egameni lezinto eziqhelekileyo zeshishini zenkampani. Kule nto, zimbini iimfuno ekufuneka zizalisekisiwe: umlawuli ulawula umlawuli kunye nesabelo sabaninizabelo okanye ungumnini uninzi lwezabelo kunye nabaphathi bakhe kwaye isivumelwano sagqitywa egameni lomsebenzi oqhelekileyo wenkampani. Xa ezi mfuno zingafezekiswanga zombini, imfuneko yemvume iyasebenza.

2. Uhambo

Xa iqela lifuna ukhuseleko lokuba ibango lemali liya kuhlawulwa, olu khuseleko lungabonelelwa nangeescrow.[1] I-Escrow ithathwe kwinqaku le-7: 850 yeKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi. Sithetha nge-escrow xa umntu wesithathu ezibandakanya kuye kwimbolekweni ngokuzibophelela komnye umntu (ityala eliyintloko) ekufuneka lizalisekisile. Oku kwenziwa ngokuphelisa isivumelwano se-escrow. Umntu wesithathu obonelela ngokhuseleko, ubizwa ngokuba ngumqinisekisi. Umqinisekisi uthwala uxanduva kwisibambiso kulowo ubolekayo kuye. Umqinisekisi ke akamamkeli uxanduva lokuhlawulwa kwetyala lakhe, kodwa ityala lelinye kwaye ngokobuqu ubonelela ngokhuseleko lokuhlawulwa kwetyala. Umqinisekisi unoxanduva lokuhlawula yonke impahla yakhe. I-escrow kungavunyelwana ngayo ukuba izalisekise uxanduva esele ikho, kodwa kunye nokuphumeza izibophelelo zexesha elizayo. Ngokulandela inqaku lesi-7: 851 umhlathi wesi-2 weKhowudi yeDatshi, ezi zibophelelo zexesha elizayo kufuneka zichazwe ngokwaneleyo xa kugqitywa iscrow. Ukuba umntu obolekayo engakwaziyo ukuzalisekisa izibophelelo zakhe ezivela kwisivumelwano, umntu obolekayo unokujongana nomqinisekisi ukuze afezekise ezi zibophelelo. Ngokwenqaku le-7: 851 yeKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi, i-escrow ixhomekeke kwisibophelelo somntu onetyala ngenxa yoko i-escrow yagqitywa ngayo. Ke ngoko, i-escrow iyayeka ukubakho xa umtyali ezalisekisile izibophelelo zakhe ezivela kwisivumelwano esiyintloko.

Umbolekisi akanokuya nje kwidilesi yokuqinisekisa ukuba ulihlawule ityala. Kungenxa yokuba umgaqo obizwa ngokuba yinkxaso-mali yokudlala udlala indima kwiscrow. Oku kuthetha ukuba umntu obolekayo akanakho ukubhena ngoko nangoko kumqinisekisi wentlawulo. Okokuqala, u-guarantor akanakuba noxanduva lokuhlawula ngaphambi kokuba umtyali oyintloko angaphumeleli ekufezekiseni izibophelelo zakhe. Oku kuvela kwinqaku le-7: 855 yeKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi. Oku kuthetha ukuba umntu oqinisekisiweyo unokugcina uxanduva lokubolekwa imali kuphela emva kokuba umntu obambe ityala eqale wathetha nomtyali oyintloko. Lowo ubolekayo kufuneka enze yonke into eyimfuneko ukuqinisekisa ukuba lowo unetyala uzinikele kuye, akakwazanga ukwenza oko. Kuyo nayiphi na imeko, umntu obolekayo kufuneka athumele isaziso sokungaphumeleli kulowo ubenetyala kuye. Kuphela kuxa ityala eliyintloko lisasilele ukuthobela uxanduva lokuhlawula emva kokufumana esi saziso sokungaphumeleli, umbolekisi angabhena kumqinisekisi ukuze afumane intlawulo. Nangona kunjalo, umqinisekisi unethuba lokuzikhusela ngokuchasene nebango lalowo obolekayo. Ukuza kuthi ga ngoku, unezikhuselo ezifanayo nezo anazo umntu onetyala, njengokumiswa, ukuxolelwa okanye ukubhena kwisigqibo sokungathobeli. Oku kuvela kwinqaku le-7: 852 yeKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi.

2.1 Ilungelo lokubuyela

Umqinisekisi ohlawula ityala lomntu onetyala, unokubuyisa le mali kulowo unetyala. Ilungelo lokubuyela emva koko lisebenza nakwi-escrow. E-escrow, indlela ekhethekileyo yelungelo lokuya kusebenza iyasebenza, eyile, ukunganyangeki. Umgaqo oyintloko kukuba ibango liyayeka ukubakho xa ibango lihlawulwe. Nangona kunjalo, ukubizwa kwe-subrogation kukodwa kulo mthetho. Kwi-subrogation, ibango lidluliselwa komnye umnini. Kule meko, elinye iqela ngaphandle komntu onamatyala lihlawula ibango lalowo obolekayo. Kwi-escrow, ibango lihlawulwa ngumntu wesithathu, oko kukuthi umqinisekisi. Ngokuhlawula ityala, nangona kunjalo, ibango ngokuchasene nomtyali alilahleki, ibhasi idluliswa isuka kumbolekisi iye kumqinisekisi ohlawule ityala. Emva kokuhlawulwa kwetyala, umqinisekisi unokuhamba ayokubuyisa imali kulowo amtyala enze isivumelwano sescrow. Subrogation kunokwenzeka kuphela kwiimeko ezilawulwa ngumthetho. Ukuncinwa ngokubhekisele kwi-escrow kunokwenzeka ngesiseko se-7: 866 yeKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi. inqaku 6:10 Ikhowudi yeDatshi.

Ishishini kunye ne-escrow yabucala 

Kukho umahluko phakathi kweshishini kunye ne-escrow yabucala. Ishishini lescrow yi-escrow egqitywa ekusetyenzisweni kobungcali okanye kwishishini, iscrow yabucala yindawo escrow egqitywa ngaphandle kwenkqubo yobugcisa okanye yeshishini. Zombini iziko elisemthethweni kunye nomntu oqhelekileyo banokugqiba ngesivumelwano se-escrow. Imizekelo yoku yile nkampani ibambayo igqiba isivumelwano se-escrow kunye neebhanki zokuxhasa imali yenkxaso-mali yayo kunye nabazali abagqiba isivumelwano sesescrow sokuqinisekisa ukuba intlawulo yemali mboleko yomntwana yabo yenziwa ebhankini. I-escrow ayisoloko kufuneka igqitywe egameni lebhanki, kunokwenzeka ukuba ungene kwimvumelwano ye-escrow nabanye abanamatyala.

Uninzi lwexesha kucacile ukuba lishishini okanye i-escrow yangasese yagqitywa. Ukuba inkampani ingena kwisivumelwano se-escrow, kugqitywa nge-escrow yeshishini. Ukuba umntu wendalo ungena kwisivumelwano se-escrow, ngokubanzi kukho i-escrow yangasese egqityiweyo. Nangona kunjalo, ukubambeka kungenzeka xa umlawuli wenkampani elawula amatyala asisisigxina okanye inkampani yabucala ethwala uxanduva lokugqiba isivumelwano se-escrow egameni lomthetho. Inqaku lesi-7: 857 IKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi ifaka into ethethwa kukuzimela ngasese: ukugqitywa kwescrow ngumntu ongaqhelanga ukwenza umsebenzi wakhe, okanye ngokwenza izinto eziqhelekileyo zenkampani ezinamatyala kawonke-wonke Inkampani Kwakhona, umqinisekisi kufuneka abe ngumlawuli wenkampani kwaye, yedwa okanye kunye nabaqondisi-zinkampani, banabaninzi bezabelo. Zimbini iikhrayitheriya ezibalulekileyo:

-Umqinisekisi ngumphathi olawulayo kunye nabaninimasheya abaninzi okanye ungumnini wesabelo esikhulu kunye nabalawuli abasebenza nabo;
- I-escrow igqitywa egameni lemisebenzi eqhelekileyo yenkampani.

Xa uziqhelanisa, kuhlala kukho umlawuli olawulayo / uninzi lwabanini zabelo olungena kwisivumelwano se-escrow. Umlawuli olawulayo / uninzi lwabanini zabelo luchaza umgaqo-nkqubo wenkampani kwaye luya kuba nomdla wobuqu kwi-escrow yenkampani yakhe, kuba kunokwenzeka ukuba ibhanki ayifuni ukubonelela ngemali ngaphandle kokugqiba isivumelwano se-escrow. Ukongeza, isivumelwano se-escrow, esigqitywe ngumphathi olawulayo / uninzi lwabanini zabelo, kufuneka ukuba kube kugqityiwe ngenjongo yemisebenzi yesiqhelo yeshishini. Nangona kunjalo, oku kwahlukile kwimeko nganye kwaye umthetho awuchazi igama 'imisebenzi eqhelekileyo yeshishini'. Ukuze uvavanye ukuba i-escrow igqityiwe kusini na ngenjongo yemisebenzi yeshishini eqhelekileyo, iimeko zetyala kufuneka zivavanywe. Xa zombini ezi nqobo ziyafezekiswa, iscrow yeshishini igqityiwe. Xa umlawuli oqukumbela i-escrow engenguye umlawuli olawulayo / uninzi lwabanini zabelo okanye iscrow ayigqitywanga ngenjongo yemisebenzi eqhelekileyo yeshishini, kugqitywa nge-escrow yabucala.

Imigaqo eyongezelelweyo isebenza kwi-escrow yabucala. Umthetho ubonelela ngokhuseleko lomtshato okanye iqabane elibhalisiweyo lomqinisekisi wabucala. Isidingo semvume esisasebenza nakwimfihlo yangasese. Ngokwenqaku 1:88 umhlathi woku-1 c c Ikhowudi yeDatshi, iqabane kufuneka livumele elinye iqabane ukuba lingene kwisivumelwano esifuna ukumbopha njengesiqinisekiso. Imvume yeqabane lomqeshi liyimfuneko yokungena kwisivumelwano esizimele sabucala. Nangona kunjalo, inqaku loku-1: 88 umhlathi 5 iKhowudi yeDatshi yaseMelika ifaka ukuba le mvume ayimfuneko xa i-escrow igqitywa ngumqinisekisi weshishini. Ukukhuselwa komlingane womqinisekisi ngoko kusebenza kuphela kwizivumelwano zesecow zabucala.

3. Isiqinisekiso

Isiqinisekiso yenye into enokwenzeka ukufumana ukhuseleko ukuba ibango liya kuhlawulwa. Isiqinisekiso lilungelo lokhuseleko lomntu, apho umntu wesithathu ethatha uxanduva oluzimeleyo lokufezekisa ukuzibophelela phakathi komtyali kunye nomtyali. Isiqinisekiso ke sifaka ukuba umntu wesithathu uqinisekisa ukuzalisekiswa kweembophelelo zetyala. Umqinisekisi uqinisekisa ukubhatala ityala ukuba lowo unamatyala akakwazi okanye akazukuhlawula.[2] Isiqinisekiso asilawulwa ngumthetho, kodwa ukuqinisekiswa kugqitywa kwisivumelwano phakathi kwamaqela.

3.1. Isiqinisekiso sokufikelela

Umahluko unokwenziwa phakathi kweefom ezimbini zewaranti ukuze ufumane ukhuseleko; ukuqinisekiswa kokungena kunye nesiqinisekiso esingaqondakaliyo. Ukuqinisekiswa kokungena kuxhomekeke kubudlelwane phakathi komntu obolekayo kunye nalowo unetyala. Ukuqala kokubona, ukuqinisekiswa kokungena kufana kakhulu ne-escrow. Nangona kunjalo, umahluko kukuba i-guarantor ngokubhekisele kwisiqinisekiso sokungena ayizibopheleli kwintsebenzo efanayo nomtyala oyintloko, kodwa kwisibophelelo somntu kunye nomxholo owahlukileyo. Umzekelo olula woku kuxa umqinisekisi uzibophelela ekunikezeleni utamatisi kulowo ubolekayo, ukuba lowo unetyala akazalisekisi uxanduva lokuhambisa iitapile. Kule meko, umxholo wesibophelelo somqinisekisi wahlukile kumxholo wesibophelelo setyala. Nangona kunjalo, oku akukuphazamisi kwinto yokuba kukho unxibelelwano olukhulu phakathi kwezi zibophelelo zimbini. Isiqinisekiso sokufikelela songezwa kubudlelwane phakathi komntu obolekayo kunye nomtyala. Ngaphaya koko, isiqinisekiso esongezelelweyo siya kuhlala sinomnatha wokhuseleko; Kuphela xa lowo unetyala engazifezi izibophelelo zakhe, umqinisekisi ubizwa ukuba enze ukuzibophelela kwakhe.

Nangona isiqinisekiso singakhankanywanga ngokucacileyo emthethweni, inqaku lesi-7: i-863 yeKhowudi yeDatshi yaseburhulumenteni ayibhekiseli kwisiqinisekiso sokungena. Ngokweli nqaku, izibonelelo ezinxulumene ne-escrow yangasese ziyasebenza nakwiimvumelwano apho umntu azibophelela kwinkonzo ethile kwimeko apho umntu wesithathu esilela ukuthobela uxanduva oluthile olunomxholo owahlukileyo kulowo ubolekayo. Izibonelelo ngokubhekisele escrow yabucala ke ngoko ziyasebenza nesiqinisekiso sokufikelela esigqitywa ngumntu sangasese.

3.2 Isiqinisekiso sokungasebenzi

Ukongeza kwesiqinisekiso sokungena, sikwazi ukhuseleko lwezezimali sesiqinisekiso sobukho. Ngokungafaniyo nesiqinisekiso sokungena, isiqinisekiso esingaqondakaliyo kukuzibophelela okuzimeleyo kwesiqinisekisi ngokuboleka umntu obolekayo. Esi siqinisekiso asinamkhethe kubudlelwane obuphantsi komntu obolekayo kunye nomtyala. Kwimeko yesiqinisekiso esingaqondakaliyo, umqinisekisi uzibophelela kwisibophelelo esizimeleyo sokuphumeza isenzo somtyali, phantsi kwemeko ezithile. Le ntsebenzo ayibophelelanga kwisivumelwano esiphantsi komntu obolekayo kunye nombolekayo. Owona mzekelo waziwayo wesiqinisekiso esingabanjwanga sisibhengezo sebhanki.

Xa kugqitywa isiqinisekiso esingabonakaliyo, umqinisekisi akanakuzama ukuzikhusela kulwalamano olungaphantsi. Xa imiqathango yesiqinisekiso ihlangatyeziwe, umqinisekisi akanakho ukuthintela intlawulo. Kungenxa yokuba isiqinisekiso sisusela kwisivumelwano esahlukileyo phakathi komntu obolekayo kunye nomqinisekisi. Oku kuthetha ukuba umntu obolekayo unokujongana nomqinisekisi kwangoko, ngaphandle kokuthumela isaziso sokumiselweyo kulowo unetyala. Ngokuphelisa isiqinisekiso, umntu obolekwa imali ufumana inqanaba eliphezulu lokuqiniseka ukuba ityala lihlawulwe kuye. Ukongeza, isiqinisekisi asinalungelo lokubuyela. Nangona kunjalo, amaqela angabandakanya amanyathelo okukhusela kwisivumelwano sokuqinisekisa. Iziphumo zomthetho zokuqinisekiswa okungafumanekiyo kwimithetho emiselweyo, kodwa zinokuzaliswa ngamaqela ngokwawo. Nangona umqinisekisi engenalungelo lokubuyela phantsi komthetho, unako ukubonelela ngeendlela zokuziphilisa. Umzekelo, isiqinisekiso esiphikisayo sinokugqitywa kunye netyala okanye itayitile yokubanjwa linokuqulunqwa.

3.3 Isiqinisekiso senkampani yomzali

Kumthetho wenkampani, isiqinisekiso senkampani yomzali sihlala sigqityiwe. Isiqinisekiso senkampani engumzali sinyanzelisa ukuba inkampani engumzali iyazibophelela ekuthobeleni uxanduva lwenkampani ekwelo qela linye ukuba inkampani leyo ayinakho okanye ayinakho ukuhlangabezana nezi zibophelelo. Ewe kunjalo, esi siqinisekiso sinokuvunyelwana kuphela neenkampani eziyinxalenye yeqela okanye inkampani ebambe oko. Ngokomgaqo, isiqinisekiso seqela sisiqinisekiso esingafakwanga. Nangona kunjalo, ngesiqhelo akukho 'mbono wokuqala wentlawulo, emva koko uthethe', apho isiqinisekiso sihlawula kwangoko ityala ngaphandle kokujonga ukuba kukho ibango elifunekayo kulowo unetyala. Isizathu soku kukuba onetyala yinkxaso-mali yomxhasi; Umqinisekisi uya kufuna ukukhangela kuqala ukuba ngenene likho ibango elifunekayo. Nangona kunjalo, 'intlawulo yokuqala, emva koko uthethe' ulwakhiwo lunokwakhiwa kwisivumelwano sesiqinisekiso. Emva kwayo yonke loo nto, amaqela anokwenza isiqinisekiso ngokweminqweno yawo. Amaqela kufuneka agqibe ukuba ngaba isiqinisekiso siquka kuphela isiqinisekiso sentlawulo okanye isiqinisekiso kufuneka siqwalasele nezinye izibophelelo, kwaye ke sisiqinisekiso sokusebenza. Umda, ubude kunye neemeko zesiqinisekiso zikwachongwe ngamaqela ngokwawo. Isiqinisekiso senkampani engumzali sinokubonelela ngesisombululo xa i-subsidiary iye yonakala, kodwa kuphela xa inkampani yomzali ingawi kunye neenkxaso-mali zayo.

4. 403-ingxelo

Kwiqela leenkampani, into ebizwa ngokuba yi-403-i-statement ihlala ikhutshwa. Le ngxelo ivela kwinqaku 2: 403 yeKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi. Ngokukhupha ingxelo engama-403, abaxhasi belo qela bakhululwa ekuyileni nasekushicileleni iiakhawunti zonyaka ezahlukileyo. Endaweni yoko, i-akhawunti edityanisiweyo yonyaka iyenziwa. Le yiakhawunti yonyaka yenkampani yabazali, apho zonke iziphumo zenkxaso zifakiwe. Imvelaphi yeakhawunti edityanisiweyo yonyaka kukuba zonke iinkxaso, nangona zihlala zisebenza ngokuzimeleyo, ekugqibeleni ziwela phantsi kolawulo kunye nokugadwa kwenkampani yabazali. Isiteyitimenti ezingama-403 sisenzo somthetho esingabumbekanga, apho kuxhomekeka kwisibophelelo esizimeleyo kwinkampani yomzali. Oku kuthetha ukuba ingxelo engama-403 kukuzibophelela okungafikelelekiyo. Ingxelo engama-403 ayikhutshwa ngamaqela amakhulu ezizwe ngezizwe; amaqela amancinci, umzekelo aqulathe iinkampani ezimbini zecandelo elinecala elinoxanduva, anakho ukusebenzisa ingxelo engama-403. Isiteyitimenti ezingama-403 kufuneka sibhaliswe kwiRejista yoRhwebo yeCandelo leRhwebo. Le ngxelo ibonisa ukuba ngawaphi amatyala enkxaso-mali ahlawulelwa yinkampani yomzali kwaye ukusukela ngaluphi usuku.

Elinye icala lenkcazo-403 kukuba inkampani enabazali enengxelo ibika ukuba inoxanduva lokuxhasana ngayo. Inkampani yabazali ke ngoko inoxanduva lokuhlawula amatyala asuka kwizenzo ezisemthethweni zenkxaso. Eli tyala liquka ukuba umntu obolekwe imali yenkxaso-mali apho kukhutshwe khona ingxelo engama-403 unokukhetha ukuba leliphi na icandelo lezomthetho afuna ukujongana nalo ukuze lizalisekise ibango lakhe: le nkxaso-mali athe yagqiba kuyo isivumelwano sokuqala okanye inkampani yabazali ekhuphe isivumelwano 403-ingxelo. Ngalo lonke uxanduva oluninzi, lowo ubolekayo uhlawulelwa ngokungabikho kokuqonda kwimeko yezemali yenkxaso mali elile naye. Ngelixa sele kuchazwe ngentla apha imali ethembisayo ekugqitywe kuyo isivumelwano, ingxelo engama-403 ibeka uxanduva kubo bonke ababolekisi beenkxaso mali. Kunokubakho ababolekisi abangaphezulu abanokuthetha nenkampani yabazali ukuzalisekisa amabango abo. Uxanduva olunokubakho oluvela kwingxelo engama-403 lubalulekile. Umngeni woku kukuba inkcazo engama-403 inokuchaphazela lonke iqela xa umxhasi ejongene neengxaki zemali. Ukuba inkampani encinci iyabhenceka, lonke iqela lingawa.

Ukurhoxiswa kwengxelo engama-4.1

Kunokwenzeka ukuba inkampani yabazali ayisenqwenele kuthwala uxanduva lokuhlawula amatyala okanye abaxhasi bayo. Oku kunokuba njalo xa inkampani yabazali ifuna ukuthengisa inkxaso. Ukurhoxisa i-403-statement, inkqubo evela kwinqaku 2: 404 yeKhowudi yeDemokhrasi yaseDatshi kufuneka ilandelwe. Le nkqubo iqulathe izinto ezimbini. Okokuqala, ingxelo engama-403 kufuneka irhoxiswe. Isibhengezo sokurhoxiswa komntu kufuneka sifakwe kwiRejista yoRhwebo yeCandelo leRhwebo. Esi sibhengezo sokurhoxiswa kubandakanya ukuba inkampani yabazali ayisabekwa tyala lokuhlawulwa kwamatyala axhasayo emva kokukhutshwa kwesigqibo sokuba kurhoxisiwe. Nangona kunjalo, ngokwe inqaku lesi-2: 404 umhlathana 2 Ikhowudi yeDatshi yaseburhulumenteni, inkampani yabazali iya kuhlala inoxanduva lwamatyala avela kwizenzo zomthetho ezigqitywe ngaphambi kwengxelo engama-403. Uxanduva ke ngoko luyaqhubeka lukhona ngamatyala avela kwizivumelwano ezigqitywe emva kokukhutshwa kwengxelo engama-403, kodwa ngaphambi kokukhupha ukubhengezwa. Oku kukhusela umntu obolekayo, onokuthi ungene kwisivumelwano ngokuqiniseka kwengxelo engama-403 engqondweni.

Nangona kunjalo, kunokwenzeka ukuba kupheliswe uxanduva ngokubhekisele kwezi zenzo zomthetho ezidlulileyo. Ukwenza oku, kufuneka kulandelwe inkqubo eyongezelelweyo, evela kwinqaku 2: 404 umhlathi 3 weKhowudi yeDatshi yaseburhulumenteni. Iimeko ezininzi zisebenza kule nkqubo:

-Ngaphantsi kwenkxaso-mali ayisayi kuba yinxalenye yeqela;
-Isaziso senjongo yokupheliswa kwengxelo engama-403 kufuneka ukuba ibekhona ukuze ihlolwe kwiChamber of Commerce ubuncinci iinyanga ezimbini;
Ubuncinci inyanga ezimbini kufuneka zidlulile kusasazo lwephephandaba likazwelonke ukuba isaziso sokupheliswa kwakho siyafumaneka.

Ukongeza, ababolekisi banokhetho lokuchasa injongo yokuphelisa i-403-statement. Isiteyitimenti esingama-403 sinokupheliswa kuphela xa kungekho mntu okanye kungekho nkcaso ifike ngexesha okanye xa inkcaso ifakiwe ibhengezwe njengongabalulekanga yijaji. Kuphela kuxa kuhlangatyezwana neemeko zokurhoxisa kunye nokupheliswa kwengcaciso engama-403, inkampani yabazali ayisekho uxanduva lokuhlawula amatyala enkxaso-mali. Kubalulekile ukuba oku kugxothwa kunye nokupheliswa kwenziwe ngononophelo; Ukuba ukurhoxisa okanye ukuyekiswa akwenziwanga ngokufanelekileyo, inkampani yabazali inokuba noxanduva lokuhlawula amatyala enkxaso-mali ebithengisiwe kwiminyaka eyadlulayo.

5. Ubambiso kunye nesibambiso

Ukhuseleko lwezezimali lungafumaneka ngokuseka ibambiso okanye isibambiso. Ngelixa ezi ndlela zokhuseleko lwezemali zifana kakhulu, kukho umahluko okwahlukeneyo.

5.1. Imali mboleko

Ubambiso lukhuseleko lwezezimali olunokuthi luchazwe ngamaqela. Ubambiso lubandakanya ukuba elinye iqela libonelele ngemboleko kwelinye iqela. Emva koko, imali mboleko iya kumiselwa ukuze ifumane ukhuseleko lwemali malunga nokuhlawulwa kwale mboleko. Ubambiso lilungelo lepropathi elinokusekwa ngokubhekisele kwipropathi yomntu onamatyala. Ukuba lowo unamatyala akakwazi ukubuyisa imali-mboleko yakhe, umntu obolekayo angabanga ipropathi ukuze afezekise ibango lakhe. Owona mzekelo waziwayo wemali mboleko ngumnini-khaya oye wavumelana nebhanki ukuba ibhanki iyakumnika imali mboleko kwaye emva koko asebenzise indlu yakhe njengezokhuseleko lokuhlawula ityala lakhe. Nangona kunjalo, oku akuthethi ukuba ubambiso lunokusekwa ngebhanki kuphela. Ezinye iinkampani kunye nabantu banokugqiba ngento yokubambisa. Isigama kwizibambiso zobambiso sinokuthi sidideke. Kwintetho eqhelekileyo, ipati, umzekelo, ngebhanki, ibonelela ngento yokubambisa kwelinye iqela. Nangona kunjalo, ngokwembono yezomthetho, obolekayo ngumnikezeli wemali mboleko, ngelixa iqela elinikezela imali mboleko ngumnini wemali mboleko. I-bhanki yiyo ke ebamba umnini mali kwaye umntu ofuna ukuthenga indlu ngumnikezeli wempahla mboleko.

Uhlobo lwezinto ekubanjiswe ngazo ukuba ubambiso alunakugqitywa kwipropathi nganye; Ngokwenqaku le-3: I-227 yeKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi, imali mboleko inokusekwa kuphela kwipropathi ebhalisiweyo. Xa kuthengiswa iipropathi ezibhalisiweyo, oku kuhanjiswa kufuneka kubhaliswe kwiirejista zikarhulumente. Kuphela kusemva kokubhalisa, ipropathi ebhalisiweyo ifunyenwe ngumthengi. Imizekelo yepropathi ebhalisiweyo ngumhlaba, izindlu, izikhephe kunye neenqwelo moya. Imoto ayibhaliswanga. Ngapha koko, imali-mboleko inokusekwa kuphela isibonelelo 'sebango elingaqinisekisiweyo'. Oku kuvela kwinqaku 3: 231 yeKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi. Oku kuthetha ukuba kufuneka icace gca malunga nokuba ibango lisekwe ngubani. Ukuba umntu obolekayo unamabango amabini nxamnye nomtyali, kufuneka kucace ukuba yeyiphi kula mabango mabini anikezelweyo. Ngapha koko, umnini wepropathi esekwe egameni lakhe ngento yokubambisa ihlala ingumnini; ubunini abudluli emva kokusekwa kwelungelo lokuthenga ngobambiso. Ubambiso luhlala lusungulwa ngokukhupha i-notarial deed.

Ukuba umntu obolekayo akazalisekisi uxanduva lokuhlawula, umntu obolekayo unokusebenzisa ilungelo lakhe lokuthenga ngokuthengisa ipropathi leyo ibibekelwe yona. Akukho myalelo wenkundla ufunekayo koku. Oku kubizwa ngokuba kuphunyezwe kwangoko kwaye kuvela kwinqaku le-3: 268 yeKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi. Kubalulekile ukuba wazi ukuba umntu obolekayo unokuthengisa kuphela ipropathi ukuze azalisekise ibango lakhe; akuvumelekanga ukuba awuphathe ngokufanelekileyo umhlaba. Esi sithintelo sichazwe ngokucacileyo kwinqaku le-3: 235 yeKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi. Inqaku elibalulekileyo lokubolekwa kwemali kukuba umnini-mali ekubambeni yena ugxile kuqala kunabo bonke abanatyala abanqwenela ukubanga ipropathi ukuze bazalisekise amabango abo. Oku kwenziwa ngokwenqaku lesi-3: I-227 yeKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi. Ngexesha lokungabinamali, umntu obambise ngemboleko mali akufuneki abaqwalasele abanye ababolekisi, kodwa unokusebenzisa ilungelo lakhe lokuhlawula ityala. Nguyena mntu ubolekayo kuqala onokuthi afezekise ibango lakhe ngenzuzo evela kwintengiso yepropathi ebhalisiweyo.

5.2. Isithembiso

Ilungelo lokukhuseleka elithelekiswa nobambiso sisibambiso. Ngokuchasene nobambiso, isibambiso asinakusekwa kwipropathi engenakususwa. Nangona kunjalo, isibambiso sinokusekwa phantse kuyo yonke enye impahla, njengepropathi eshukumayo, amalungelo okuba ngumphathi okanye iodolo kwaye nasekuzisebenziseni kwepropathi okanye ilungelo elinjalo. Oku kuthetha ukuba isithembiso sinokusekwa kuzo zombini iimoto nakwizixa-mali zokufumana kwabo banamatyala. Lowo ubolekayo umisa isibambiso ukuze afumane ukhuseleko lokuba ibango lakhe lihlawulwe. Kuya kugqitywa ngesivumelwano phakathi komtyali (umnini wesibambiso) kunye nomtyali (umnikezeli wesibambiso). Ukuba umntu obolekayo akazithobelanga iimfuno zakhe zokuhlawula, umntu obolekayo unelungelo lokuthengisa ipropathi kunye nokuphumeza ibango lakhe ngenzuzo leyo. Xa umntu onetyala esilela ukuthobela uxanduva lokuhlawula, umntu obolekayo unokuthengisa ngokuthe ngqo ipropathi. Ngokwenqaku le-3: I-248 yeKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi, akukho myalelo wenkundla ofunekayo koku, okuthetha ukuba ukubulawa kwangoko kuyasebenza. Kufana nobambiso, umntu obolekayo akavumelekanga ukuba alungiselele indawo anikwe ilungelo lokuyibhatala; unokuthengisa kuphela ipropathi leyo kwaye azalisekise ibango lakhe ngaloo nzuzo. Oku kuvela kwinqaku le-3: 235 yeKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi. Ngokuyintloko, umntu obolekayo onelungelo lesibambiso ugxile ngaphezulu kwabanye ababambisi kwimeko yokubhanga okanye ukunqunyanyiswa kwentlawulo. Nangona kunjalo, kunokukhathalela ukuba isibambiso sepropathi okanye isibambiso esingachazwanga sigqityiwe.

5.2.1 Isibambiso sepesenti kunye nesibambiso esingachazwanga

Isibambiso sobunini bugqitywa xa ipropathi 'ihamba phantsi kolawulo lwesibambiso okanye umntu wesithathu'. Oku kuvela kwinqaku 3: 236 Yekhowudi YaseDatshi. Oku kuthetha ukuba ipropathi ebambeleyo idluliselwa kulowo ubolekayo; obolekwa imali ngokwenene unepropathi ebumnini ngexesha lokuqhubeka kwesibambiso. Isibambiso sobunini sisungulwa ngokuzisa elungileyo phantsi kolawulo lwalowo unetyala. Umbolekisi kufuneka anyamekele ipropathi kwaye aqhubeke nokugcina. Ezi ndleko zolondolozo kufuneka zibuyiselwe kulowo unetyala.

Ngaphandle kwesibambiso sobunini, sikwanaso nesibambiso esingachazwanga, esibizwa ngokuba sisibambiso esingabanjwanga. Oku kungqinwa yinqaku 3: 237 yeKhowudi yaseDatshi. Xa kusetyenziswe isibambiso esingachazwanga, ipropathi ayiziswa phantsi kolawulo lomntu obolekayo, kodwa kusenziwa isigqibo esibonisa ukuba isibambiso eso singafakwanga. Le isenokuba sisivumelwano se-notarial kunye nesivumelwano sangasese. Nangona kunjalo, isazisi sabucala kufuneka sibhaliswe kwi-notary okanye kwigunya lerhafu. Izithembiso ezingafakwanga zivame ukusetyenziswa ziinkampani ezifuna ukuseka isibambiso kumatshini. Ukuba lo matshini uza kuziswa unikwe lowo ubolekayo, inkampani ngekhe ikwazi ukwenza imisebenzi yayo yeshishini.

Isibambiso selungelo lokuzala sivelisa ilungelo lokhuseleko elinamandla kunesibambiso esingachazwanga. Xa isibambiso sisibambiso senziwe, umntu obanjiweyo sele enepropathi yakhe. Oku akusiyo imeko xa kusekwe isibambiso esingachazwanga. Kwimeko enjalo, umntu obolekayo kufuneka aqinisekise ukuba lowo unetyala kuye makaphathise impahla. Ngaba umntu onamatyala uyala oku, kunganyanzeleka ukuba anyanzelise ukuhanjiswa kokulungileyo enkundleni. Umahluko phakathi kwesibambiso esinezinto ezifunwayo kunye nesibambiso esingacaciswanga ukwakudlala indima ekungabinakho imali kunye nokumiswa kwentlawulo. Njengoko sele kuxoxiwe, umbolekisi unelungelo lokubulawa kwangoko; angayithengisa kwangoko ipropathi ngokukhawuleza ukuze afezekise ibango lakhe. Kwakhona, abanini zimbambiso bagxile kuqala kunabanye abababolekisi abangakwaziyo ukuhlawula amatyala abo. Nangona kunjalo, kukho umahluko phakathi kwesibambiso selifa lesibambiso kunye nesibambiso esingachazwanga. Abaphethe isibambiso sezinto ezinokubakho baphinde banikwe ingqwalaselo ephambili kumagunya erhafu xa lowo unetyala etyala imali. Abaphethe isibambiso esingachazwanga abanakugxila kubaphathi beirhafu; ilungelo labasemagunyeni lerhafu boyisa ilungelo lomnini wesibambiso esingachazwanga ngexesha lokubhanga komntu onetyala. Isibambiso sezinto ezigcinwayo ke ngoko sinika ukhuseleko ngakumbi ngexesha lokubhanga ngaphandle kwesithembiso esingaxelwanga.

6. Isiphelo

Oku kulapha ngasentla kubandakanya iindlela ezahlukeneyo zokufumana ukhuseleko lwezemali: amatyala aliqela, escrow, (inkampani yabazali) isiqinisekiso, imali engama-403, imali mboleko kunye nesibambiso. Ngokomgaqo, ezi kukhuseleko zihlala zichazwe kwisivumelwano. Olunye ukhuseleko lwezezimali lunokulungiswa ngendlela engenazifom, ngokweminqweno yamaqela ngokwawo, ngelixa ezinye izibambiso zezemali ziphantsi kwemiqathango yomthetho. Ngenxa yoko, iindlela ezahlukeneyo zokhuseleko lwezemali zonke zinenzuzo kunye nokungahambi kakuhle. Oku kusebenza kuwo omabini amaqela afuna ukhuseleko kunye neqela elinikezela ngokhuseleko. Ezinye izibambiso zezemali zinika ukhuseleko ngakumbi kulowo ubolekayo kunenye, kodwa zinokuza nezinye iingxaki. Kuxhomekeka kwimeko, indlela efanelekileyo yokhuseleko yemali inokugqitywa phakathi kwamaqela.

[1] I-Escrow ihlala ibizwa ngokuba sisiqinisekiso. Nangona kunjalo, phantsi komthetho waseDatshi, zimbini iintlobo zokhuseleko lwezemali eziguqulela ukuqiniseka ngesiNgesi. Ukugcina eli nqaku liqondakala, igama elithi escrow liya kusetyenziswa kolu khuseleko lwezezimali.

[2] Igama 'guarantor' likhankanywa zombini kwi-escrow nakwisiqinisekiso. Nangona kunjalo, intsingiselo yeli gama ixhomekeke kwilungelo lokhuseleko elibandakanyekayo.

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