Imigaqo nemiGaqo ngokubanzi: yintoni ekufuneka uyazi

Xa uthenga into kwivenkile yewebhu-kwangaphambi kokuba ufumane ithuba lokuhlawula ngombane - uhlala ucelwa ukuba uphawule ibhokisi ukuze ubhengeze ukuba uyavumelana nemigaqo nemigaqo yevenkile yewebhu. Ukuba uphawula le bhokisi ungakhange ufunde imiqathango ngokubanzi, ungomnye uninzi; Akukho namnye umntu obafundayo ngaphambi kokuba akhatywe. Nangona kunjalo, oku kuyingozi. Amagama kunye nemibandela ngokubanzi inokuba nomxholo ongathandekiyo. Amagama kunye nemibandela ngokubanzi, imalunga nantoni?

Amagama kunye neemeko ngokubanzi zihlala zibizwa ngokuba kukushicilelwa okuncinci kwesivumelwano. Ziqulathe imigaqo eyongezelelweyo kunye nemigaqo ehamba nesivumelwano. KwiKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi umntu unokufumana imigaqo ethi imigaqo kunye neemeko ngokubanzi kufuneka zihlangane okanye zingangacacisi gca.

Inqaku lesi-6: 231 sub kwicandelwana leKhowudi yaseDatshi linika le nkcazo yemibandela ngokubanzi:

«Inye okanye ngaphezulu amagatya eziqulunqwe ukuba zibandakanywe kwinani lezivumelwano, ngaphandle kwe amagatya ukujongana nezinto eziphambili zesivumelwano, kude kube ngoku kucacile kwaye kuyaqondakala ».

Ekuqaleni, ubugcisa. I-6: 231 sub yomgaqo weDutch Civil Code wayethetha kumagatya abhaliweyo. Nangona kunjalo, ngokuphunyezwa koMgaqo 2000/31 / EG, ujongene ne-e-commerce, igama elithi "ebhaliweyo" lasuswa. Oku kuthetha ukuba amagama athethwayo gabalala ahambelana neemeko ezisemthethweni ngokunjalo.

Umthetho uthetha malunga «nomsebenzisi» kunye «neqela eliphikisayo». Umsebenzisi ngulowo usebenzisa imigaqo kunye neemeko ngokubanzi kwisivumelwano (art 6: 231 sub b yeKhowudi yaseDatshi). Ngokwesiqhelo ngumntu othengisa iimpahla. Iqela elichasayo ngoyena mntu, ngokutyikitya uxwebhu olubhaliweyo okanye ngenye indlela, Iqinisekisa ukuba yamkele imigomo kunye neemeko ngokubanzi (art 6: 231 sub c yeKhowudi yeNdawo yaseDatshi).

Izinto ezibizwa ngokuba zezona zinto ziphambili zesivumelwano azihambi phantsi komda osemthethweni wemibandela ngokubanzi kunye neemeko. Ezi zinto aziyonxalenye yemeko kunye neemeko ngokubanzi. Le yimeko xa amagatya enza isiseko sesivumelwano. Ukuba ibandakanyiwe kwimithetho jikelele kunye neemeko, azisebenzi. Umba ophambili ujongene nemiba yesivumelwano ebaluleke kakhulu kangangokuba ngaphandle kwabo isivumelwano asinakuze sifezekiswe injongo yokungena kwisivumelwano akunakuphunyezwa.

Imizekelo yezihloko eziza kufumaneka kwizinto eziphambili yile: imveliso ethengisiweyo, ixabiso eliza kuhlawulwa ngulo mntu uchasene nomgangatho okanye ubungakanani bezinto ezithengisiweyo / ezithengisiweyo.

Injongo yommiselo osemthethweni wegama ngokubanzi kunye neemeko iphindwe kathathu:

  • Ukomeleza ulawulo lomthetho kumxholo wegama ngokubanzi kunye neemeko ukukhusela (counter) amaqela apho kusebenza khona imigaqo ngokubanzi, ngakumbi abathengi.
  • Ukubonelela ngokhuseleko oluphezulu lomthetho ngokubhekisele ekusebenzeni kunye (nasekungamkelweni) komxholo wegama ngokubanzi kunye neemeko.
  • Ukushukumisa incoko phakathi kwabasebenzisi bamagama aqhelekileyo kunye neemeko kunye namaqela ajonge ukuphucula iimfuno zabo babandakanyekayo, njengemibutho yabathengi.

Kulungile ukwazisa ukuba imigaqo yomthetho ngokubhekisele kwimigqaliselo kunye neemeko ngokubanzi azisebenzi kwizivumelwano zomsebenzi, izivumelwano ezihlanganisiweyo zentengiselwano kunye nentengiselwano yorhwebo lwangaphandle.

Xa umba onxulumene nemibandela ngokubanzi kunye neemeko ziziswa kwinkundla, umsebenzisi kuya kufuneka aqinisekise ubunyani beembono zakhe. Umzekelo, unokubonisa ukuba imigaqo kunye neemeko ngokubanzi zisetyenzisiwe ngaphambili kwezinye iimvumelwano. Inqaku eliphambili kwisigwebo kukuba amaqela anentsingiselo anokuthi ngokufanelekileyo ahambelane nemigqaliselo kunye neemeko ngokubanzi kunye noko banokulindela omnye komnye. Kwimeko yokuthandabuza, ukwakhiwa okubonakalayo kulungile kumthengi uyahlula (ubugcisa 6: 238 igatya 2 leKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi).

Umsebenzisi unyanzelekile ukuba azise iqela elichasayo malunga nemigaqo kunye neemeko ngokubanzi (art 6: 234 yeKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi). Unakho ukusizalisekisa esi sibophelelo ngokunika imihlaba ngokubanzi kunye neemeko kwiqela elichasayo (ubugcisa 6: 234 igatya 1 leKhowudi yeNdawo yaseDatshi). Umsebenzisi kufuneka akwazi ukubonisa ukuba uyenzile le nto. Ukudlulisela phambili akunakwenzeka, umsebenzisi kufuneka, ngaphambi kokuba kusekwe isivumelwano, azise iqela elichasayo ukuba kukho imigaqo kunye neemeko ngokubanzi kwaye apho anokufunyanwa khona kwaye afundwe, umzekelo kwiChamber of Commerce okanye kulawulo lwenkundla (ubugcisa 6: 234 igatya loku-1 leKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi) okanye angayithumela kwiqela eliphikisayo xa libuziwe.

Oko kuya kwenziwa ngoko nangoko kunye neendleko zomsebenzisi. Ukuba akusiyo inkundla enokuthi ibhengeze imigaqo kunye neemeko ngokubanzi ezingekho mthethweni (art 6: 234 yeKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi), ngokuxhomekeka ekubeni umsebenzisi unokuhlangabezana ngokufanelekileyo nale mfuno. Ukubonelela ngokufikelela kwimibandela ngokubanzi kunye neemeko zingenziwa ngekhompyuter. Oku kuhlala kubugcisa. I-6: 234 igatya 2 kunye ne-3 leKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi. Ngayiphi na imeko, ukubonelelwa nge-elektroniki kuvunyelwe xa isivumelwano sasungulwa ngombane.

Kwimeko yobonelelo nge-elektroniki, iqela elichasayo kufuneka likwazi ukugcina imiqathango ngokubanzi kunye nemeko kwaye linikwe ixesha elaneleyo lokuzifunda. Xa isivumelwano singasekelwanga ngombane, iqela elichasayo kufuneka livumelane nolungiselelo lwekhompyutha (art 6: 234 igatya lesi-3 leKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi).

Ngaba lo mmiselo uchazwe ngentla uyasebenza? Ukusuka kwisigwebo seNkundla ePhakamileyo yeDatshi (ECLI: NL: HR: 1999: ZC2977: IGeurtzen / Kampstaal) sinokuthi ummiselo ubumiselwe ukuba uphela. Nangona kunjalo, kulungiso iNkundla ePhakamileyo ngokwayo iyasihlawula esi sigqibo. Kwisilungiso sichaziwe ukuba xa umntu enokucinga ukuba iqela eliphikisayo liyazi okanye linokulindelwa ukuba lazi imigaqo nemiGaqo gabalala, ukubhengeza imiqathango ngokubanzi kunye nemeko engavumelekanga akukho ndlela.

Ikhowudi yeDatshi yaseburhulumenteni ayichazi into ekufuneka ibandakanyiwe kwimibandela ngokubanzi, kodwa iyatsho ukuba yintoni engabandakanywanga. Njengoko kuchaziwe apha ngasentla, oku kuphakathi kwezinye izinto eziphambili zesivumelwano, ezinje ngemveliso ethengiweyo, ixabiso kunye nobude besivumelwano. Ngapha koko, a uluhlu olumnyama kunye a Uluhlu lwegrey zisetyenziswa kuvavanyo (ubugcisa 6: 236 kunye nobugcisa 6: 237 beKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi) enamagatya angenangqondo. Kufuneka kuqatshelwe ukuba uluhlu olumnyama kunye nolunga luyasebenza xa kusebenza imigaqo-nkqubo ngokubanzi kunye nezivumelwano phakathi kwenkampani nomthengi (B2C).

The uluhlu olumnyama (art.6: 236 yeKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi) iqulathe amagatya athi, xa ebandakanywa kwimigqaliselo kunye neemeko ngokubanzi, athatyathwa njengongenamthetho ngokomthetho.

Uluhlu oluMnyama lunamacandelo amathathu:

  1. Imigaqo ethintela iqela elichasene namalungelo kunye nobuchule. Umzekelo kukuhlutshwa kwelungelo lokuzalisekiswa (ubugcisa. 6: 236 sub kwikhowudi yaseDatshi) okanye ukukhutshwa okanye ukunqunyulwa kwelungelo lokupheliswa kwesivumelwano (ubugcisa. 6: 236 sub b kwiKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi).
  2. Imigaqo enika umsebenzisi amalungelo ongezelelweyo okanye ubuchule. Umzekelo, igatya elivumela umsebenzisi ukuba anyuse ixabiso lemveliso ngaphakathi kweenyanga ezintathu emva kokungena kwisivumelwano, ngaphandle kokuba iqela elichasayo livunyelwe ukuba lichithe isivumelwano kwimeko enjalo (art 6: 236 sub i of the Dutch Civil) Ikhowudi).
  3. Iindidi zemigaqo yexabiso eyahlukeneyo yobungqina (art 6: 236 sub k of the Dutch Civil Code). Umzekelo, ukuqhubeka ngokuzenzekelayo kobhaliso kwijenali okanye ngamaxesha, ngaphandle kwenkqubo echanekileyo yokurhoxisa ubhaliso (art.6: 236 sub p kunye q yeKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi).

The Uluhlu lwegrey yemibandela ngokubanzi kunye neemeko (art.6: 237 ye-Dutch Civil Code) enemigaqo ethi, xa ibandakanyiwe kwimibandela ngokubanzi, ithathwa ngokuba inobunzima. La magatya akanangxaki engenangqondo.

Imizekelo yoku ngamagatya abandakanya ukuthintelwa koxanduva lomsebenzisi kwiqela elichasayo (art 6: 237 sub b yeKhowudi yaseDatshi), amagatya avumela umsebenzisi ixesha elide elingaqhelekanga lokuzalisekisa isivumelwano ( ubugcisa be-6: 237 sub e ye-Code Civil yaseDutch) okanye amagatya abophelela iqela elichasene nexesha elide lokucinywa komsebenzisi (ubugcisa. 6: 237 sub l yeKhowudi yeDemokhrasi yaseDutch).

Iinkcukacha zoqhagamshelwano

Ukuba unayo nayiphi na imibuzo okanye izimvo emva kokufunda eli nqaku, zive ukhululekile ukunxibelelana mr. UMaxim Hodak, igqwetha-mthetho-kwa- Law & More via maxim.hodak@lawandmore.nl or mr. Tom Meevis, attorney-at-law at Law & More via tom.meevis@lawandmore.nl or call us on +31 (0)40-3690680.

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