Iicingo ezilungileyo zenza abamelwane abalungileyo-indlela oorhulumente abasabela ngayo kwi-cybercrime kunye nophuhliso lwetekhnoloji kunye ne-Intanethi

intshayelelo

Abanye kuni mhlawumbi bayazi ukuba njengesiqhelo sokushicilela ndipapasha iincwadi kwiinguqulelo ezivela kwiilwimi zaseMpuma Yurophu ukuya kwisiNgesi nakwisiDatshi - http://www.glagoslav.com. Olunye upapasho lwam lwakutshanje yincwadi ebhalwe ligqwetha laseRussia uAnatoly Kucherena, owayephethe ityala likaCloudden eRussia. Umbhali ubhale incwadi esekwe kwibali lokwenyani lomthengi wakhe uEdward Snowden -Ixesha le-Octopus, nesisiseko seskripthi somdlalo bhanyabhanya waseHollywood osandul 'ukukhutshwa u "Snowden" okhokelwa ngu-Oliver Stone umlawuli wefilimu obalaseleyo wase-US.

U-Edward Snowden waziwa ngokubanzi ngokuba ngumbhali wempempe, evuza inani elikhulu lolwazi oluyimfihlo kwimisebenzi ye-espionage ye-CIA, i-NSA kunye ne-GCHQ kumaphephandaba. Umdlalo bhanyabhanya phakathi kwezinye ubonakalisa ukusetyenziswa kwenkqubo ye 'PRISM', apho i-NSA inokuluvala unxibelelwano ngomkhamo omkhulu nangaphandle kokugunyaziswa komntu ngamnye. Abantu abaninzi baya kubona le misebenzi kude kakhulu kwaye bayichaza njengokubonisa imifanekiso yaseMelika. Inyani esemthethweni esiphila kuyo ibonisa okuchaseneyo. Into abangayaziyo abaninzi kukuba iimeko zothelekiso zenzeka rhoqo kunokuba ucinga. NaseNetherlands. Ngokufanelekileyo, nge-20 kaDisemba ngo-2016 i-Dutch House yabameli yadlulisela umthetho oyimfihlo wobucukubhede "Computercriminaliteit III" ("Cybercrime III").

Ikhompyutercriminaliteit III

Umthetho osayilwayo weComputercriminaliteit III, osadinga ukuphunyezwa yiNdlu yeeNgwevu yaseDatshi nalapho uninzi lwazo sele luthandazela ukusilela kwayo, yenzelwe ukunika amagosa aphandayo (amapolisa, iRoyal Constabulary kunye nabasemagunyeni abakhethekileyo abenza uphando njenge-FIOD) ukuphanda (okt ukukopisha, ukujonga, ukungenelela nokwenza ulwazi olungafikelelekiyo) 'kwi-automated operations' okanye 'kwizixhobo zekhompyuter' (kubantu abaqhelekileyo: izixhobo ezinje ngeekhompyuter kunye neeselfowuni) ukulungiselela ukufumanisa ulwaphulo-mthetho olubi. Ngokwaseburhulumenteni kuye kwafuneka ukuba kunikwe amagosa aphandayo amandla okuba - ngokungacacanga-ahlole abemi bawo njengoko la maxesha abangele ukuba ulwaphulo-mthetho lungabinakulandeleka ngenxa yokwanda kokungaziwa nokufihlwa kwedatha. Imemorandam echazayo epapashwe ngokunxulumene nomthetho oyilwayo, into ekunzima ukuyifunda enamaphepha ali-114, ichaze iinjongo ezintlanu ezinokuthi zisetyenziswe kumagunya okuphanda:

  • Ukusekwa nokufakwa kweenkcukacha ezithile zezixhobo zekhompyuter okanye zomsebenzisi, njengokuzazisa okanye indawo: ngakumbi, oku kuthetha ukuba amagosa aphandayo anokufikelela ngasese iikhompyuter, ii-routers kunye neefowuni eziphathwayo ukuze afumane ulwazi olunje ngedilesi ye-IP okanye inombolo ye-IMEI.
  • Ukurekhodwa kwedatha egcinwe kwisixhobo esikwikhompyuter: Amagosa aphandayo anokurekhoda idatha efunekayo ukuze 'kumiselwe inyaniso' nokusombulula ulwaphulo-mthetho olunzulu. Umntu unokucinga ngokurekhodwa kwemifanekiso yamanyala abantwana kunye neenkcukacha zokungena kwiindawo ezivalekileyo.
  • Ukwenza idatha ingafikeleleki: iya kuba nakho ukwenza idatha apho ulwaphulo-mthetho lwenziwe khona ukuba lungafikeleleki ukuze kupheliswe ulwaphulo-mthetho okanye ukuthintela ulwaphulo-mthetho lwexesha elizayo. Ngokweememorandam ezichazayo, kufanele ukuba ngale ndlela ibe nakho ukulwa nezi ngxaki.
  • Ukuphunyezwa kwewaranti yokuqhawula unxibelelwano nokurekhoda (okunemfihlo) konxibelelwano: phantsi kwemeko ezithile kuyenzeka ukuba baphazamise kwaye babhale phantsi (ulwazi) luyimfihlo kunye okanye ngaphandle kwentsebenzo yomboneleli wenkonzo yonxibelelwano.
  • Ukuphunyezwa kwesigunyaziso sokujonga ngendlela ecwangcisiweyo: Amagosa aphandayo ayakufumana isakhono sokumisa indawo kwaye alandele umkhondo womsolwa, ngokufaka kude isoftware ekhethekileyo kwisixhobo esenziwe ngekhompyutha.

Abantu abakholelwa ukuba la magunya anokusetyenziswa kuphela kwimeko ye-cybercrime baya kuphoxeka. Amagunya aphandayo njengoko kukhankanyiwe phantsi kwengca yokuqala kunye neyokugqibela ezimbini zebhulethini njengoko kuchaziwe apha ngasentla, inokusetyenziswa kwimeko yolwaphulo-mthetho oluvunyelweyo ukubanjwa okwethutyana, okuya kulwaphulo mthetho apho umthetho ubeka isigwebo esincinci seminyaka emi-4. Amandla ophando aqhagamshelwe okwesibini kunye nenjongo yesithathu anokusetyenziswa kuphela kwimeko yolwaphulo-mthetho apho umthetho ubeka isigwebo esincinci seminyaka eyi-8. Ukongeza, i-odolo ngokubanzi kwibhunga ingabonisa ulwaphulo-mthetho, olwenziwayo kusetyenziswa umsebenzi oluzenzekelayo apho kubaluleke kakhulu ekuhlaleni ukuba ulwaphulo-mthetho luphelile kwaye abarhanelwa bayatshutshiswa. Ngethamsanqa, Ukungena kwezinto ezenzekelayo kuya kugunyaziswa kuphela kwimeko apho umrhanelwa esebenzisa isixhobo.

Imiba yezomthetho 

Njengoko indlela eya esihogweni igqitywe ngeenjongo ezilungileyo, ukubekwa kweliso elifanelekileyo ayisosibekeso. Amagunya ophando anikezwe ngumthetho oyilwayo anokwenziwa ngokufihlakeleyo, kodwa isicelo sesicelo esinjalo sinokwenziwa kuphela ngumtshutshisi. Phambi kokugunyaziswa kwejaji esongamelayo kuyafuneka kwaye i- "Centrale Toetsingscommissie" yeCandelo lezoTshutshiso loLuntu livavanya ukusetyenziswa kwesixhobo. Ukongeza, kwaye njengoko bekutshiwo ngaphambili, kukho isithintelo ngokubanzi ekusebenziseni kwamagunya kwizenzo zolwaphulo-mthetho ngesigwebo seminyaka emi-4 okanye esi-8. Ngayiphi na imeko, iimfuno zokulingana kunye nokuxhaswa kufuneka zizalisekiswe, kunye neemfuno ezingummiselo kunye nezenkqubo.

Ezinye izinto ezintsha

Eyona nto ibaluleke kakhulu kumthetho oyilwayo we-Computercriminaliteit III ngoku sele kuxoxiwe. Ndiqaphele ukuba uninzi lwamajelo osasazo, kwizikhalo zabo zokubandezeleka, ulibale ukuxoxa ngezihloko ezibini zokongezwa kwebhili. Esokuqala kukuba lo mthetho uyilwayo uza kukwazisa 'ukusebenzisa izixhobo zokufikisa' ngokufuna umkhondo 'wokuzilolonga'. Izitabane zinokubonwa njengotshintsho lwedijithali lwabafana abathandayo; Ukukhangela unxibelelwano ngokwesini kunye nabantwana. Ngapha koko, kuya kuba lula ukutshutshisa abafumana idatha ebiweyo kunye nabathengisi ngobuqhetseba abangavumeli ukuhambisa iimpahla okanye iinkonzo abanikezela ngazo kwi-Intanethi.

Izichaso kwi-Computercriminaliteit III

Umthetho ocetywayo unokubonelela ngokuhlasela okukhulu ngasese kubemi baseDatshi. Umda womthetho ubanzi ngokubanzi. Ndingacinga ngeenkcaso ezininzi, ukukhethwa kwazo kubandakanya inyani yokuba xa ujonga umda kwizikrelemnsi kunye nesigwebo esincinci seminyaka emi-4, umntu ucinga ngokukhawuleza ukuba oku kubonisa umda ofanelekileyo kwaye kuya kuhlala kubandakanya iziphoso ezi ngxolelo olunzima. Nangona kunjalo, umntu ongena ngabom kumtshato wesibini kwaye akavumi ukwazisa umlingane, unokugwetywa iminyaka eyi-6. Ukongeza, inokuba imeko yokuba umrhanelwa agqibe ukuba umsulwa. Ayizizo kuphela iinkcukacha zakhe eziye zahlolisiswa ngokucokisekileyo, kodwa zinokwenzeka neenkcukacha zabanye ezingenanto yakwenza nolwaphulo-mthetho olungazenzanga. Emva kwayo yonke loo nto, iikhompyuter kunye neefowuni 'zibalasele kakhulu' zisetyenziselwa ukunxibelelana nabahlobo, usapho, abaqeshi kunye nabanye abaninzi. Ukongeza, kuyathandabuzeka ukuba ngaba abantu abanoxanduva lokuvunywa nokubekwa esweni kwezicelo ezisekwe kumthetho oyilwayo banolwazi olukhethekileyo lokufumana isicelo. Nangona kunjalo, loo mthetho uphantse wabonakala njengobubi obuyimfuneko kule mihla. Phantse wonke umntu ukhe wajongana nezikrelemnqa ze-Intanethi kunye noxinzelelo luye lubaleke kakhulu xa umntu ethengile itikiti lekhonsathi eyinyani kwindawo yentengiso ye-Intanethi. Ngapha koko, akukho mntu unokuhlala enethemba lokuba umntwana wakhe uza kudibana ne-iffy figure ngexesha lokukhangela kwakhe imihla ngemihla. Umbuzo uhlala wokuba ingaba i-Computercriminaliteit III, ngamathuba ayo ebanzi, yindlela yokuhamba.

isiphelo

Umthetho oyilwayo we-Computercriminaliteit III ubonakala ngathi uye wabububi obuyimfuneko. Lo mthetho usayilwayo ubonelela abaphengululi abaphikisayo ngeqondo elininzi lamandla okufikelela kwimisebenzi ekhompyuter yabarhanelwa. Ngokungafaniyo nemeko kwi-Snowden-affair umthetho oyilwayo ubonelela ngokhuseleko olukhulu kakhulu. Nangona kunjalo, kusathandabuza ukuba ezi zikhuseli zanele na ukunqanda ukungena kwabantu ngasese kubemi baseDatshi nakwimeko ebabekekhathazeke kakhulu yokuthintela "i-Snowden 2.0" -iffair ukuba yenzeke.

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