Uqhawulo mtshato kwilizwe jikelele

Kwakuqhelekile ukuba kutshatwe umntu wesizwe esinye okanye wemvelaphi efanayo. Kule mihla, ukutshata kwabantu bezizwe ezahlukeneyo kuya kusiba yinto eqhelekileyo. Ngelishwa, i-40% yemitshato eNetherlands iphela kuqhawulo-mtshato. Isebenza njani le nto ukuba umntu uhlala kwelinye ilizwe ngaphandle kwelo babengene kulo emtshatweni?

Uqhawulo mtshato kwilizwe jikelele

Ukwenza isicelo ngaphakathi kwe-EU

Ummiselo (EC) ongu-2201/2003 (okanye: Brussels II bis) usebenze kuwo onke amazwe akwi-EU ukusukela nge-1 Matshi 2015. Ulawula ulawulo, ukwamkelwa nokunyanzeliswa kwezigwebo kwimicimbi yomtshato kunye noxanduva lwabazali. Imigaqo ye-EU isebenza kuqhawulo-mtshato, ukwahlukana ngokwasemthethweni kunye nokuchithwa komtshato. Ngaphakathi kwi-EU, isicelo soqhawulo-mtshato sinokufakwa kwilizwe apho inkundla inolawulo khona. Inkundla inegunya kweli lizwe:

  • Apho bobabini abatshatileyo bahlala khona.
  • Bobabini abatshatileyo bangabesizwe.
  • Apho uqhawulo-mtshato lusenziwa khona kunye.
  • Apho elinye iqabane lifaka isicelo sokuqhawula umtshato kwaye elinye lihlala ngokwesiqhelo.
  • Apho iqabane belihlala khona ubuncinci iinyanga ezi-6 kwaye lingumntu welizwe. Ukuba akanguye owesizwe, uxwebhu lwezikhalazo lunokungeniswa ukuba lo mntu ebehleli kweli lizwe unyaka omnye ubuncinci.
  • Apho elinye lamaqabane lagqibela ukuhlala kwaye nalapho elinye lamaqabane lihlala khona.

Ngaphakathi e-EU, inkundla eqala ukufumana isicelo soqhawulo-mtshato ehlangabezana nemiqathango inamagunya okuthatha isigqibo ngoqhawulo mtshato. Inkundla evakalisa uqhawulo-mtshato inokuthatha isigqibo malunga nelungelo lokugcina abantwana elihlala kwilizwe lenkundla. Imithetho ye-EU ngoqhawulo mtshato ayisebenzi eDenmark ngenxa yokuba iBrussels II bis Regulation ayamkelwanga apho.

ENetherlands

Ukuba esi sibini asihlali eNetherlands, kunokwenzeka kuphela ukuba uqhawule umtshato eNetherlands ukuba amaqabane omabini anobuzwe baseDatshi. Ukuba oku akunjalo, inkundla yaseDatshi inokuzibhengeza ifanelekile phantsi kweemeko ezizodwa, umzekelo ukuba akunakwenzeka ukuba uqhawule umtshato phesheya. Nokuba abantu abatshatileyo baphesheya, banokufaka isicelo sokuqhawula umtshato eNetherlands. Imeko kukuba umtshato ubhalisiwe kwindawo yokuhlala yaseNetherlands. Iziphumo zoqhawulo mtshato zinokwahluka phesheya. Ummiselo woqhawulo-mtshato ovela kwilizwe le-EU wamkelwa ngokuzenzekelayo ngamanye amazwe e-EU. Ngaphandle kwe-EU oku kungahluka kakhulu.

Uqhawulo-mtshato lunokuba neziphumo kwimo yomntu yokuhlala eNetherlands. Ukuba iqabane linemvume yokuhlala kuba lihlala neqabane lakhe eNetherlands, kubalulekile ukuba afake isicelo semvume yokuhlala phantsi kweemeko ezahlukeneyo. Ukuba oku akwenzeki, imvume yokuhlala ingarhoxiswa.

Ngowuphi umthetho osebenzayo?

Umthetho welizwe apho kufakwa khona isicelo soqhawulo-mtshato awusayi kusebenza kulo mtshato. Inkundla kungafuneka isebenzise umthetho welinye ilizwe. Oku kwenzeka rhoqo eNetherlands. Kwicandelo ngalinye letyala kufuneka livavanywe ukuba ingaba inkundla inegunya kwaye nguwuphi umthetho ekufuneka usetyenzisiwe. Umthetho wamanye amazwe wabucala udlala indima ebalulekileyo koku. Lo mthetho ligama leambrela kwiindawo zomthetho apho kubandakanyeke ilizwe elingaphezulu kwelinye. Ngomhla woku-1 kuJanuwari 2012, iNcwadi ye-10 yeKhowudi yoLuntu yaseDatshi yaqala ukusebenza eNetherlands. Le iqulethe imigaqo yomthetho wabucala wamanye amazwe. Umgaqo ophambili kukuba inkundla eNetherlands isebenzisa umthetho woqhawulo mtshato waseDatshi, nokuba ngowaluphi na uhlanga kunye nendawo yokuhlala amaqabane. Oku kwahlukile xa esi sibini siye sarekhodwa emthethweni. Abalingane baya kuthi emva koko bakhethe umthetho osebenzayo kwinkqubo yabo yoqhawulo-mtshato. Oku kunokwenziwa ngaphambi kokuba umtshato ungeniswe, kodwa unokwenziwa nakwelinye ixesha. Oku kunokwenzeka xa sele uza kuqhawula umtshato.

Ummiselo kulawulo lwepropathi yomtshato

Kwimitshato engene ngomhla wama-29 kuJanuwari 2019 okanye emva kwawo, kuya kusetyenziswa uMmiselo (EU) ongu-2016/1103. Lo mmiselo ulawula umthetho osebenzayo kunye nokunyanzeliswa kwezigqibo kwimicimbi yolawulo lwepropathi yomtshato. Imigaqo ebeka phantsi ichaza ukuba zeziphi iinkundla ezinokugweba kwipropathi yabatshati (igunya), ngowuphi umthetho osebenzayo (ungqubano lwemithetho) nokuba isigwebo esinikwe yinkundla yelinye ilizwe kufuneka samkelwe kwaye sinyanzeliswe lelinye (ukuqaphela kunye nokunyanzeliswa). Ngokomgaqo, inkundla enye isenamagunya ngokwemithetho yoMgaqo weBrussels IIa. Ukuba akukho mthetho ukhe wenziwa, umthetho kaRhulumente apho amaqabane ahlala khona okokuqala uya kusebenza. Xa kungekho ndawo yokuhlala eqhelekileyo, umthetho wobuzwe bobabini bomtshato uya kusebenza. Ukuba abatshati abanabo ubuzwe obufanayo, umthetho kaRhulumente abanamaqabane asondeleyo kuwo uyakusebenza.

Ummiselo ke ngoko usebenza kuphela kwipropathi yomtshato. Imigaqo imisela ukuba ngaba umthetho waseDatshi, yiyo loo nto uluntu ngokubanzi lwepropathi okanye uluntu olunomda wepropathi okanye inkqubo yelinye ilizwe, kufuneka isetyenziswe. Oku kunokuba neziphumo ezininzi kwiiasethi zakho. Kububulumko ke ukufuna ingcebiso kwezomthetho, umzekelo, ukhetho lwesivumelwano somthetho.

Ingcebiso ngaphambi komtshato wakho okanye ingcebiso kunye noncedo kwimeko yoqhawulo-mtshato, ungaqhagamshelana namagqwetha osapho Law & More. At Law & More Siyaqonda ukuba uqhawulo-mtshato kunye neziganeko ezilandelayo zinokuba neziphumo ezibi kakhulu ebomini bakho. Kungenxa yoko le nto sithatha indlela yobuqu. Sikunye nawe kunye neqabane lakho langaphambili, sinokumisela imeko yakho yomthetho ngexesha lodliwanondlebe ngokwamaxwebhu kwaye sizame ukurekhoda umbono okanye iminqweno yakho. Ukongeza, sinokukunceda kwinkqubo enokwenzeka. Amagqwetha Law & More ziingcali kwicandelo lomthetho wabucala kunye nosapho kwaye bayakuvuyela ukukukhokela, mhlawumbi kunye neqabane lakho, kwinkqubo yoqhawulo mtshato.

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