Uxanduva lwabalawuli kwi-Netherlands

intshayelelo

Ukuqala inkampani eyeyakho ngumsebenzi okhangayo kubantu abaninzi kwaye kuza nezinye izibonelelo ezahlukeneyo. Nangona kunjalo, yintoni (ikamva) labarhwebi ebonakala ngathi ayijongeli phantsi, yinto yokuba ukuseka inkampani kuza kunye nokungahambi kakuhle kunye nemingcipheko. Xa inkampani isungulwe ngendlela yequmrhu elisemthethweni, umngcipheko wetyala labalawuli ukho.

Umbutho osemthethweni liziko elisemthethweni elinobuntu obusemthethweni. Ke ngoko, iqumrhu elisemthethweni liyakwazi ukwenza isenzo esisemthethweni. Ukuphumeza oku, umbutho osemthethweni udinga uncedo. Kuba iziko elisemthethweni likho kuphela ephepheni, alinakho ukusebenza lodwa. Umbutho osemthethweni kufuneka umelwe ngumntu wendalo. Ngokomgaqo, iqumrhu elisemthethweni limelwe yibhodi yabalawuli. Abalawuli banokwenza amanyathelo asemthethweni egameni lezinto zomthetho. Umlawuli ubopha kuphela iziko lomthetho ngezi zenzo. Ngokommiselo, umlawuli akanoxanduva lokuhlawulwa kwetyala lezomthetho ngepropathi yakhe. Nangona kunjalo, kwezinye iimeko uxanduva lwabalawuli lunokwenzeka, kwimeko apho umlawuli uya kuba noxanduva lobuqu. Zimbini iintlobo zoxanduva lwabalawuli: uxanduva lwangaphakathi nolwangaphandle. Eli nqaku lixoxa ngezizathu ezahlukeneyo zokuhlawulwa kwabalawuli.

Uxanduva lwangaphakathi lwabalawuli

Uxanduva lwangaphakathi luthetha ukuba umlawuli uya kuba noxanduva lwezinto zomthetho ngokwakhe. Uxanduva lwangaphakathi lufumaneka kwinqaku 2: 9 yeKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi. Umlawuli unokubanjwa uxanduva ngaphakathi xa ezalisekisa imisebenzi yakhe ngendlela engafanelekanga. Ukuphunyezwa ngokungafanelekanga kwemisebenzi kuthathwa xa isityholo esinzulu sinokwenziwa kumlawuli. Oku kusekwe kwinqaku 2: 9 yeKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi. Ngapha koko, umlawuli usenokungakhathali ekuthatheni amanyathelo ukuthintela ukwenzeka kolawulo olungalunganga. Sithetha nini xa sityholwa ngokuqatha? Ngokomthetho wamatyala oku kufuneka kuvavanywe ngokuthatha zonke iimeko zetyala.[1]

Ukwenza ngokungafaniyo namanqaku okubandakanywa kwento esemthethweni kuchazwa njengokuphazamiseka. Ukuba oku kunjalo, uxanduva lwabalawuli ngokwemigaqo luya kuthathwa. Nangona kunjalo, umlawuli unokuzisa ngaphambili iinyani kunye neemeko ezibonisa ukuba ukwenza ngokuchaseneyo namanqaku okufakwa akubangeli sityholo esiqatha. Ukuba le yimeko, ijaji kufuneka ibandakanye ngokucacileyo oku kwisigwebo sakhe.[2]

Uxanduva oluninzi lwangaphakathi kunye nokukhupha

Uxanduva olusekwe kwinqaku 2: I-9 yeKhowudi yeDatshi yase-Datshi ifaka ukuba ngokomgaqo bonke abalawuli banetyala. Izityholo ezingqongqo ke ziya kwenzelwa kuzo zonke iBhodi yabalawuli. Nangona kunjalo, kukho okwahlukileyo kulo mthetho. Umlawuli unokuzithethelela ('ecela') uxanduva lwabalawuli. Ukwenzela ukuba enze njalo, umlawuli kufuneka abonise ukuba isityholo asinakubekwa kuye kwaye akakhange abe buthathaka ekuthatheni amanyathelo ukuthintela ulawulo olungafanelekanga. Oku kuvela kwinqaku 2: 9 IKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi. Isibheno ngokukhupha awusayi kwamkelwa ngokulula. Umlawuli kufuneka abonise ukuba uthathe onke amanyathelo kumandla akhe ukunqanda ulawulo olungafanelekanga. Umthwalo wobungqina ulele kumlawuli.

Ukwahlulahlulwa kwemisebenzi ngaphakathi kwebhodi yabalawuli kunokubaluleka kokuchonga ukuba ngaba umlawuli uxanduva okanye akunjalo. Nangona kunjalo, eminye imisebenzi ithathwa njengemisebenzi ebaluleke kuyo yonke ibhodi yabalawuli. Abalawuli kufuneka bazi iinyani ezithile kunye neemeko ezithile. Ukwahlula imisebenzi ayitshintshi le. Ngokomgaqo, ukungabinamandla okwaneleyo ayisiyi sizathu sokuzonwabisa. Abalawuli banokulindeleka ukuba baziswe ngokufanelekileyo kwaye babuze imibuzo. Nangona kunjalo, iimeko zinokwenzeka apho oku kungenakulindeleka kumlawuli.[3] Ke ngoko, nokuba umlawuli unako ukuzikhuphela ngokwakhe ngempumelelo, kuxhomekeke kakhulu kwizibakala nakwiimeko zetyala.

Uxanduva lwangaphandle lwabalawuli

Uxanduva lwangaphandle lubandakanya ukuba umlawuli uxanduva kumntu wesithathu. Uxanduva lwangaphandle lubhoboza isigqubuthelo sobumbano. Umbutho osemthethweni awusabakhuseli abantu bemvelo abalawuli. Izizathu zomthetho zamatyala abalawuli bangaphandle zolawulo olungalunganga, ngokusekwe kwinqaku 2: 138 IKhowudi yeDatshi yaseburhulumenteni kunye nenqaku 2: 248 IKhowudi yaseDatshi yaseburhulumenteni (ngaphakathi kokubhanga) kunye nesenzo sokuhlukunyezwa ngokusekwe kwinqaku le-6: 162 IKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi (ngaphandle kwamatyala ).

Uxanduva lwangaphandle lwabalawuli ngaphakathi kokuchithwa kwemali

Uxanduva lwabalawuli bangaphandle ngaphakathi kubhengezo lusebenza kwiinkampani ezizimeleyo ezinamatyala (iDutch BV kunye ne-NV). Oku kuvela kwinqaku 2: 138 IKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi kunye nenqaku 2: 248 yeKhowudi yaseDatshi. Abalawuli banokubanjwa xa uxanduva lokungabinamali lubangelwe yimpazamo okanye iimpazamo zebhodi yabalawuli. Umlondolozi, omele bonke ababolekisi, kufuneka enze uphando ukuba ingaba uxanduva lwabalawuli lukhona na.

Uxanduva lwangaphandle lokubhanga lunokuvunywa xa ibhodi yabalawuli iyiphumezile ngokufanelekileyo imisebenzi yayo kwaye oku kungazalisekisi ngendlela engafanelekanga kuyimbangela ebalulekileyo yokuchithwa kwemali. Umthwalo wobungqina ngokubhekisele koku kuzalisekiswa okungafanelekanga kwemisebenzi ilele kumhambisi; Kuya kufuneka enze ukuba kucace ukuba umlawuli ocinga ngokuqiqayo, phantsi kweemeko ezifanayo, ngekhe enze ngale ndlela.[4] Izenzo eziphazamisa ababolekisi kwimigaqo zivelisa ulawulo olungafanelekanga. Ukuphathwa gadalala ngabalawuli kufuneka kuthintelwe.

Indlu yowiso-mthetho ibandakanye iingcinga ezithile zobungqina kwinqaku 2: 138 sub 2 Ikhowudi yeDatshi yaseburhulumenteni kunye nenqaku 2: 248 sub 2 IKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi. Xa ibhodi yabalawuli ingahambelani nenqaku lesi-2 seKhowudi yaseDatshi okanye inqaku 10: 2 IKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi, kuphakama ubungqina. Kule meko, kucingelwa ukuba ulawulo olungalunganga lube yinto ebalulekileyo yokubhanga. Oku kugqithisela umthwalo wobungqina kumlawuli. Nangona kunjalo, abalawuli banokuphikisana nokucingelwa kobungqina. Ukwenzela ukuba enze njalo, umlawuli kufuneka enze ukuba kucace ukuba ukubhengezwa akubangakho kulawulo olungafanelekanga, kodwa ngenxa yezinye iinyani kunye neemeko. Umlawuli kufuneka abonise kwakhona ukuba khange abe ngabuthathaka ekuthatheni amanyathelo ukwenzela ukuthintela ulawulo olungafanelekanga.[5] Ngaphezulu, umlondolozi unokufaka ifayile yebango kangangeminyaka emithathu ngaphambi kokuba ayibhengeze. Oku kuvela kwinqaku 2: 138 sub 6 Dutch Code kunye nenqaku 2: 248 sub 6 Ikhowudi YaseDatshi.

Uxanduva oluninzi lwangaphandle kunye nokukhupha

Wonke umlawuli uxanduva olupheleleyo lokuphathwa ngendlela engafanelekanga ngaphakathi kubhengezo. Nangona kunjalo, abalawuli banokulibaleka eli tyala ngokuzifezekisa. Oku kuvela kwinqaku 2: 138 sub 3 Dutch Code Code kunye nenqaku 2: 248 sub 3 Dutch Code. Umlawuli kufuneka angqine ukuba ukuzalisekiswa okungafanelekanga kwemisebenzi akunakwenziwa kuye. Usenokuba akakhange abe buthathaka ekuthatheni amanyathelo ukuze kuthintelwe iziphumo zokuzaliseka okungafanelekanga kwemisebenzi. Umthwalo wobungqina ekuzukiseni ulele kumlawuli. Oku kuvela kumanqaku achazwe apha ngasentla kwaye kusekwe kumthetho wamatyala weNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseDatshi.[6]

Uxanduva lwangaphandle oluhambelana nesenzo sokuhlanjwa

Abalawuli banakho ukubanjwa banetyala ngokusekelwe kwisenzo sokuhlukunyezwa, esivela kwinqaku le-6: 162 leKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi. Eli nqaku linika isiseko esiqhelekileyo soxanduva. Uxanduva lwabalawuli olususelwa kwisenzo sokuhlukumeza lunokubhenelwa kulowo ubolekayo.

Inkundla ePhakamileyo yaseDatshi yahlula iindidi ezimbini zamatyala abalawuli ngokusekwe kwisenzo sokuhlukunyezwa. Okokuqala, ukubekwa ityala kungamkelwa ngokwesiseko somgangatho weBeklamel. Kule meko, umlawuli ungene kwisivumelwano kunye nomntu wesithathu egameni lenkampani, ngelixa wayesazi okanye enesizathu esifanelekileyo sokuba aqonde ukuba inkampani ayizithobelanga izibophelelo ezivela kwesi sivumelwano.[7] Uhlobo lwesibini loxanduva kukudideka kwezixhobo. Kule meko, umphathi wabangela ukuba le nkampani ibabhatali abo babhatala kwaye ayikwazi ukwenza uxanduva lokuhlawula. Izenzo zomlawuli azikhathaleli, ukuba kunokubekwa kuye isityholo esinamandla.[8] Umthwalo wobungqina koku ulele kunye nomntu ombolekayo.

Uxanduva lomlawuli weziko lomthetho

ENetherlands, umntu wendalo kunye nombutho osemthethweni unokuba ngumphathi wequmrhu elisemthethweni. Ukwenza izinto zibe lula, umntu wendalo ongumlawuli uya kubizwa ngokuba ngumlawuli wendalo kunye nomthetho osemthethweni ongumlawuli oya kubizwa ngokuba ngumlawuli weqonga kulo mhlathi. Into yokuba iziko elisemthethweni linokuba ngumlawuli, oko akuthethi ukuba uxanduva lwabalawuli lungathintelwa nje ngokuqeshwa kwequmrhu elisemthethweni njengomlawuli. Oku kuvela kwinqaku le-2 yeKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi. Xa umqondisi wecandelo ebanjiwe uxanduva, oku kuxhomekeke kubalawuli bemvelo beli ziko lolawulo.

Inqaku 2: I-Code 11 yaseDatshi isebenza kwiimeko apho uxanduva lwabalawuli luthathelwa ingqalelo kwinqaku 2: 9 IKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi, inqaku 2: 138 IKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi kunye nenqaku 2: 248 IKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi. Nangona kunjalo, kuphakame imibuzo ukuba ngaba inqaku okanye hayi kwinqaku le-2. Inkundla ePhakamileyo yaseDatshi igqibe kwelokuba injalo le nyani. Kwesi sigwebo, iNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseDatshi ikhomba kwimbali yezomthetho. Inqaku 11: IKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi ijolise ekuthinteleni abantu bemvelo ukuba bangazifihli emva kwabalawuli beziko ukuze baphephe uxanduva. Oku kubandakanya ukuba inqaku 2: IKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi isebenza kuwo onke amatyala apho umbutho unokugcinwa uxanduva ngokomthetho.[9]

Ukuchithwa kwebhodi yabalawuli

Uxanduva lwabalawuli lungathintelwa ngokunika ukukhutshwa kwibhodi yabalawuli. Ukulahlwa kuthetha ukuba umgaqo-nkqubo webhodi yabalawuli, njengoko kuqhutywa kude kube ngumzuzu wokukhutshwa, wamkelwe ngumbutho osemthethweni. Ukuchithwa ke kukuhambisa uxanduva kubaqondisi. Ukulahla ayilogama elinokufumaneka emthethweni, kodwa lihlala libandakanyiwe kumanqaku okufakwa kwezinto zomthetho. Ukulahla kuyinto esebenzayo engaphakathi etyala. Ke ngoko, ukukhutshwa kusebenza kuphela kuxanduva lwangaphakathi. Amaqela esithathu asakwazi ukubiza uxanduva lwabalawuli.

Ukukhutshwa kusebenza kuphela kwiinyani nakwiimeko ezazisaziwa kubaninizabelo ngexesha lokukhutshwa okunikezelwayo.[10] Uxanduva lwezibakala ezingaziwayo luza kuhlala lukhona. Ke ngoko, ukukhutshwa akukho sikhulu sepesenti kwaye akuphikisi iziqinisekiso kubalawuli.

isiphelo

Ukuziqhelanisa namashishini kunokuba ngumceli mngeni kwaye kube yinto eyonwabisayo, kodwa ngelishwa iza nemingcipheko. Uninzi lwabarhwebi bakholelwa ukuba banokukhuphela ngaphandle uxanduva ngokuseka iziko elisemthethweni. Aba somashishini bazokuphoxeka; phantsi kweemeko ezithile, uxanduva lwabalawuli lungasebenza. Oku kunokuba nemiphumo ebanzi; Umlawuli uya kuba noxanduva lwamatyala enkampani ngee-asethi zakhe zabucala. Ke ngoko, umngcipheko ofumaneka kuxanduva lwabalawuli akufuneki ukuba lujongelwe phantsi. Kuya kuba bubulumko ukuba abalawuli bamaziko asemthethweni athobele yonke imigqaliselo esemthethweni kunye nokulawula umbutho wezomthetho ngendlela evulekileyo neqhutywa ngabom.

Inguqulelo epheleleyo yeli nqaku iyafumaneka ngeli khonkco

Iinkcukacha zoqhagamshelwano

Ukuba unemibuzo okanye izimvo emva kokufunda eli nqaku, nceda ukhululeke ukunxibelelana noMaxim Hodak, igqwetha apha Law & More via maxim.hodak@lawandmore.nl, or Tom Meevis, lawyer at Law & More via tom.meevis@lawandmore.nl, or call +31 (0)40-3690680.

[1] ECLI: NL: HR: 1997: ZC2243 (Staleman / Van de Ven).

[2] ECLI: NL: HR: 2002: AE7011 (Berghuizer Papierfabriek).

[3] ECLI: NL: I-GHAMS: 2010: BN6929.

[4] ECLI: NL: HR: 2001: AB2053 (Panmo).

[5] ECLI: NL: HR: 2007: BA6773 (Blue Tomato).

[6] ECLI: NL: HR: Ngo-2015: 522 (Glascentrale Beheer BV).

[7] ECLI: NL: HR: 1989: AB9521 (Beklamel).

[8] ECLI: NL: HR: 2006: AZ0758 (Ontvanger / Roelofsen).

[9] ECLI: NL: HR: 2017: 275.

[10] ECLI: NL: HR: 1997: ZC2243 (Staleman / Van de Ven); ECLI: NL: HR: 2010: BM2332.

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