Uxanduva lwabalawuli kwi-Netherlands

intshayelelo

Ukuqala inkampani eyeyakho ngumsebenzi okhangayo kubantu abaninzi kwaye kuza nezinye izibonelelo ezahlukeneyo. Nangona kunjalo, yintoni (ikamva) labarhwebi ebonakala ngathi ayijongeli phantsi, yinto yokuba ukuseka inkampani kuza kunye nokungahambi kakuhle kunye nemingcipheko. Xa inkampani isungulwe ngendlela yequmrhu elisemthethweni, umngcipheko wetyala labalawuli ukho.

Umbutho osemthethweni liziko elisemthethweni elinobuntu obusemthethweni. Ke ngoko, iqumrhu elisemthethweni liyakwazi ukwenza isenzo esisemthethweni. Ukuphumeza oku, umbutho osemthethweni udinga uncedo. Kuba iziko elisemthethweni likho kuphela ephepheni, alinakho ukusebenza lodwa. Umbutho osemthethweni kufuneka umelwe ngumntu wendalo. Ngokomgaqo, iqumrhu elisemthethweni limelwe yibhodi yabalawuli. Abalawuli banokwenza amanyathelo asemthethweni egameni lezinto zomthetho. Umlawuli ubopha kuphela iziko lomthetho ngezi zenzo. Ngokommiselo, umlawuli akanoxanduva lokuhlawulwa kwetyala lezomthetho ngepropathi yakhe. Nangona kunjalo, kwezinye iimeko uxanduva lwabalawuli lunokwenzeka, kwimeko apho umlawuli uya kuba noxanduva lobuqu. Zimbini iintlobo zoxanduva lwabalawuli: uxanduva lwangaphakathi nolwangaphandle. Eli nqaku lixoxa ngezizathu ezahlukeneyo zokuhlawulwa kwabalawuli.

Uxanduva lwangaphakathi lwabalawuli

Uxanduva lwangaphakathi lithetha ukuba umlawuli uya kuthwala uxanduva ngumbutho osemthethweni ngokwawo. Uxanduva lwangaphakathi luvela kwinqaku 2: 9 Ikhowudi yase-Dutch Civil. Umlawuli unokubanjwa enoxanduva ngaphakathi xa eyifezekisile imisebenzi yakhe ngendlela engafanelekanga. Ukufezekiswa okungafanelekanga kwemisebenzi kucingelwa xa isityholo esiqatha sinokwenziwa ngokuchasene nomlawuli. Oku kusekwe kwinqaku 2: 9 iKhowudi yoLuntu yaseDatshi. Ngaphaya koko, umphathi usenokungakhathali ekuthatheni amanyathelo ukuthintela ukwenzeka kolawulo olungafanelekanga. Sithetha nini ngesityholo esiqatha? Ngokomthetho wamatyala oku kufuneka kuvavanywe kuthathelwa ingqalelo zonke iimeko zetyala. [1]

Ukwenza ngokuchasene namanqaku okufakwa kwezinto ezisemthethweni kuchazwa njengemeko enzima. Ukuba kunjalo, uxanduva lwabalawuli luya kuthathwa ngokomgaqo. Nangona kunjalo, umlawuli unokuzisa ngaphambili iinyani kunye neemeko ezibonisa ukuba ukwenza ngokuchasene namanqaku okufakwa akubangeli sityholo esiqatha. Ukuba kunjalo, ijaji kufuneka ibandakanye ngokucacileyo kwisigwebo sayo. [2]

Uxanduva oluninzi lwangaphakathi kunye nokukhupha

Uxanduva olusekwe kwinqaku 2: I-9 yeKhowudi yeDatshi yase-Datshi ifaka ukuba ngokomgaqo bonke abalawuli banetyala. Izityholo ezingqongqo ke ziya kwenzelwa kuzo zonke iBhodi yabalawuli. Nangona kunjalo, kukho okwahlukileyo kulo mthetho. Umlawuli unokuzithethelela ('ecela') uxanduva lwabalawuli. Ukwenzela ukuba enze njalo, umlawuli kufuneka abonise ukuba isityholo asinakubekwa kuye kwaye akakhange abe buthathaka ekuthatheni amanyathelo ukuthintela ulawulo olungafanelekanga. Oku kuvela kwinqaku 2: 9 IKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi. Isibheno ngokukhupha awusayi kwamkelwa ngokulula. Umlawuli kufuneka abonise ukuba uthathe onke amanyathelo kumandla akhe ukunqanda ulawulo olungafanelekanga. Umthwalo wobungqina ulele kumlawuli.

Ukwahlulwa kwemisebenzi kwibhodi yabalawuli kunokubaluleka ekuqinisekiseni ukuba ingaba umlawuli unoxanduva okanye hayi. Nangona kunjalo, eminye imisebenzi ithathwa njengemisebenzi ebalulekileyo kuyo yonke ibhodi yabalawuli. Abalawuli kufuneka bazi iinyani ezithile kunye neemeko. Ukwahlulwa kwemisebenzi akukutshintshi oku. Ngokomgaqo, ukungaziphathi kakuhle ayisosizathu sokuzixolisa. Abalawuli banokulindeleka ukuba baziswe ngokufanelekileyo kwaye babuze imibuzo. Nangona kunjalo, iimeko zinokwenzeka apho oku kungenakulindeleka kumlawuli. [3] Ke ngoko, nokuba umlawuli unokukwazi ukuzikhupha ngempumelelo, kuxhomekeke kakhulu kwiinyani nakwiimeko zetyala.

Uxanduva lwangaphandle lwabalawuli

Uxanduva lwangaphandle lubandakanya ukuba umlawuli uxanduva kumntu wesithathu. Uxanduva lwangaphandle lubhoboza isigqubuthelo sobumbano. Umbutho osemthethweni awusabakhuseli abantu bemvelo abalawuli. Izizathu zomthetho zamatyala abalawuli bangaphandle zolawulo olungalunganga, ngokusekwe kwinqaku 2: 138 IKhowudi yeDatshi yaseburhulumenteni kunye nenqaku 2: 248 IKhowudi yaseDatshi yaseburhulumenteni (ngaphakathi kokubhanga) kunye nesenzo sokuhlukunyezwa ngokusekwe kwinqaku le-6: 162 IKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi (ngaphandle kwamatyala ).

Uxanduva lwangaphandle lwabalawuli ngaphakathi kokuchithwa kwemali

Uxanduva lwabalawuli bangaphandle ngaphakathi kubhengezo lusebenza kwiinkampani ezizimeleyo ezinamatyala (iDutch BV kunye ne-NV). Oku kuvela kwinqaku 2: 138 IKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi kunye nenqaku 2: 248 yeKhowudi yaseDatshi. Abalawuli banokubanjwa xa uxanduva lokungabinamali lubangelwe yimpazamo okanye iimpazamo zebhodi yabalawuli. Umlondolozi, omele bonke ababolekisi, kufuneka enze uphando ukuba ingaba uxanduva lwabalawuli lukhona na.

Uxanduva lwangaphandle lokungabinamali lunokwamkelwa xa ibhodi yabalawuli iyifezekisile ngokungafanelekanga imisebenzi yayo kwaye oku kuzalisekiswa ngokungafanelekanga kubalulekile njengonobangela wokubhengezwa. Umthwalo wobungqina malunga nokuzalisekiswa okungafanelekanga kwemisebenzi uhleli kumlondolozi; Kuya kufuneka enze into ebambekayo yokuba umlawuli ocinga ngokufanelekileyo, phantsi kweemeko ezifanayo, ngewayengazange enze ngoluhlobo. [4] Izenzo ezonakalisa umboleki kumgaqo zivelisa ulawulo olungalunganga. Ukuphathwa gadalala ngabalawuli kufuneka kuthintelwe.

Ipalamente ifake ubungqina obuthile kwinqaku 2: 138 sub 2 iKhowudi yoLuntu yaseDatshi kunye nenqaku 2: 248 sub 2 Ikhowudi yaseDatshi. Xa ibhodi yabalawuli ingahambelani nenqaku 2:10 iKhowudi yoLuntu yaseDatshi okanye inqaku 2: 394 iKhowudi yoLuntu yaseDatshi, kucingelwa ubungqina buvela. Kule meko, kucingelwa ukuba ulawulo olungalunganga ibengunobangela obalulekileyo wokungabinamali. Oku kugqithisela umthwalo wobungqina kumlawuli. Nangona kunjalo, abalawuli banokuluphikisa uqikelelo lobungqina. Ukwenza njalo, umlawuli makenze into ebambekayo yokuba ukubhengezwa ngokungabinamali akubangelwa lulawulo olungafanelekanga, kodwa ngamanye amanqaku kunye neemeko. Umlawuli kufuneka futhi abonise ukuba khange akhathalele ekuthatheni amanyathelo ukuthintela ulawulo olungalunganga. [5] Ngapha koko, umgcini unokugcina kuphela ibango kangangesithuba seminyaka emithathu ngaphambi kokubhengezwa. Oku kuvela kwinqaku 2: 138 engaphantsi kwe-6 yeKhowudi yoLuntu yaseDatshi kunye nenqaku 2: 248 sub 6 yeKhowudi yaseKhaya yaseDatshi.

Uxanduva oluninzi lwangaphandle kunye nokukhupha

Wonke umlawuli unoxanduva lokuzibophelela kulawulo olungalunganga ngaphakathi kokungabinamali. Nangona kunjalo, abalawuli banokulubaleka olu xanduva ngokuzixakekisa. Oku kuvela kwinqaku 2: 138 sub 3 Ikhowudi yase-Dutch Civil kunye nenqaku 2: 248 sub 3 Ikhowudi yase-Dutch Civil. Umlawuli makangqine ukuba ukuzalisekiswa okungafanelekanga kwemisebenzi akunakubanjwa kuye. Usenokungakhathali ekuthatheni amanyathelo ukuthintela iziphumo zokungazaliseki kakuhle kwemisebenzi. Umthwalo wobungqina bokuxhamla ulele kumlawuli. Oku kuvela kumanqaku akhankanywe apha ngasentla kwaye kusekwe kumthetho wamva nje weNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseDatshi. [6]

Uxanduva lwangaphandle oluhambelana nesenzo sokuhlanjwa

Abalawuli banakho ukubanjwa banetyala ngokusekelwe kwisenzo sokuhlukunyezwa, esivela kwinqaku le-6: 162 leKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi. Eli nqaku linika isiseko esiqhelekileyo soxanduva. Uxanduva lwabalawuli olususelwa kwisenzo sokuhlukumeza lunokubhenelwa kulowo ubolekayo.

Inkundla ePhakamileyo yaseDatshi yahlulahlula iintlobo ezimbini zoxanduva lwabalawuli ngokusekwe kwisenzo sentuthumbo. Okokuqala, uxanduva lunokwamkelwa ngokomgangatho weBeklamel. Kule meko, umlawuli ungene kwisivumelwano neqela lesithathu egameni lenkampani, ngelixa wayesazi okanye kufanelekile ukuba aqonde ukuba inkampani ayinakho ukuthobela izibophelelo ezivela kwesi sivumelwano. [7] Uhlobo lwesibini lwetyala kukuxakaniseka kwezixhobo. Kule meko, umlawuli ubangele ukuba inkampani ayibahlawuli abo ibatyalayo kwaye ayinakho ukufeza uxanduva lwayo lokuhlawula. Izenzo zomlawuli azinankathalo, kangangokuba isityholo esiqatha sinokwenziwa kuye. [8] Umthwalo wobungqina koku ulele kumbolekisi.

Uxanduva lomlawuli weziko lomthetho

ENetherlands, umntu wendalo kunye nombutho osemthethweni unokuba ngumphathi wequmrhu elisemthethweni. Ukwenza izinto zibe lula, umntu wendalo ongumlawuli uya kubizwa ngokuba ngumlawuli wendalo kunye nomthetho osemthethweni ongumlawuli oya kubizwa ngokuba ngumlawuli weqonga kulo mhlathi. Into yokuba iziko elisemthethweni linokuba ngumlawuli, oko akuthethi ukuba uxanduva lwabalawuli lungathintelwa nje ngokuqeshwa kwequmrhu elisemthethweni njengomlawuli. Oku kuvela kwinqaku le-2 yeKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi. Xa umqondisi wecandelo ebanjiwe uxanduva, oku kuxhomekeke kubalawuli bemvelo beli ziko lolawulo.

Inqaku 2:11 Ikhowudi yase-Dutch Civil isebenza kwiimeko apho uxanduva lwabalawuli luthathwa ngokusekwe kwinqaku 2: 9 iKhowudi yase-Dutch Civil, inqaku 2: 138 iKhowudi yoLuntu yaseDatshi kunye nenqaku 2: 248 iKhowudi yoLuntu yaseDatshi. Nangona kunjalo, kuphakame imibuzo malunga nokuba inqaku 2:11 iKhowudi yoLuntu yaseDatshi iyasebenza na kubalawuli 'uxanduva olusekwe kwisenzo sentuthumbo. INkundla ePhakamileyo yaseDatshi igqibe kwelokuba kunjalo ngenene. Kwesi sigwebo, iNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseDatshi yalatha kwimbali yezomthetho. Inqaku lesi-2: 11 Ikhowudi yase-Dutch Civil ijolise ekuthinteleni abantu bendalo ukuba bazimele ngasemva kwabalawuli beziko ukuphepha uxanduva. Oku kubandakanya ukuba inqaku 2:11 iKhowudi yoLuntu yaseDatshi isebenza kuwo onke amatyala apho umlawuli wequmrhu angabekwa uxanduva olusekwe kumthetho. [9]

Ukuchithwa kwebhodi yabalawuli

Uxanduva lwabalawuli lungathintelwa ngokunika ukukhutshwa kwibhodi yabalawuli. Ukulahlwa kuthetha ukuba umgaqo-nkqubo webhodi yabalawuli, njengoko kuqhutywa kude kube ngumzuzu wokukhutshwa, wamkelwe ngumbutho osemthethweni. Ukuchithwa ke kukuhambisa uxanduva kubaqondisi. Ukulahla ayilogama elinokufumaneka emthethweni, kodwa lihlala libandakanyiwe kumanqaku okufakwa kwezinto zomthetho. Ukulahla kuyinto esebenzayo engaphakathi etyala. Ke ngoko, ukukhutshwa kusebenza kuphela kuxanduva lwangaphakathi. Amaqela esithathu asakwazi ukubiza uxanduva lwabalawuli.

Ukukhutshwa kusebenza kuphela kwiinyani kunye neemeko ezazisaziwa kubanini zabelo ngexesha lokukhululwa. [10] Uxanduva lwenyani engaziwayo isaza kubakho. Ke ngoko, ukukhutshwa akukhuselekanga ngekhulu leepesenti kwaye akuniki siqinisekiso kubalawuli.

isiphelo

Ukuziqhelanisa namashishini kunokuba ngumceli mngeni kwaye kube yinto eyonwabisayo, kodwa ngelishwa iza nemingcipheko. Uninzi lwabarhwebi bakholelwa ukuba banokukhuphela ngaphandle uxanduva ngokuseka iziko elisemthethweni. Aba somashishini bazokuphoxeka; phantsi kweemeko ezithile, uxanduva lwabalawuli lungasebenza. Oku kunokuba nemiphumo ebanzi; Umlawuli uya kuba noxanduva lwamatyala enkampani ngee-asethi zakhe zabucala. Ke ngoko, umngcipheko ofumaneka kuxanduva lwabalawuli akufuneki ukuba lujongelwe phantsi. Kuya kuba bubulumko ukuba abalawuli bamaziko asemthethweni athobele yonke imigqaliselo esemthethweni kunye nokulawula umbutho wezomthetho ngendlela evulekileyo neqhutywa ngabom.

Inguqulelo epheleleyo yeli nqaku iyafumaneka ngeli khonkco

Iinkcukacha zoqhagamshelwano

Ukuba unemibuzo okanye izimvo emva kokufunda eli nqaku, nceda ukhululeke ukunxibelelana noMaxim Hodak, igqwetha apha Law & More ngokusebenzisa [imeyile ikhuselwe], okanye uTom Meevis, igqwetha apha Law & More ngokusebenzisa [imeyile ikhuselwe], okanye tsalela umnxeba +31 (0) 40-3690680.

[1] ECLI: NL: HR: 1997: ZC2243 (Staleman / Van de Ven).

[2] ECLI: NL: HR: 2002: AE7011 (IBerghuizer Papierfabriek).

[3] ECLI: NL: GHAMS: 2010: BN6929.

[4] ECLI: NL: HR: 2001: AB2053 (Panmo).

[5] ECLI: NL: HR: 2007: BA6773 (iBlue Tomato).

[6] ECLI: NL: HR: 2015: 522 (IGlascentrale Beheer BV).

[7] ECLI: NL: HR: 1989: AB9521 (Beklamel).

[8] ECLI: NL: HR: 2006: AZ0758 (Ontvanger / Roelofsen).

[9] ECLI: NL: HR: 2017: 275.

[10] ECLI: NL: HR: 1997: ZC2243 (Staleman / Van de Ven); ECLI: NL: HR: 2010: BM2332.

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