Uxanduva lwezabelo kwiNetherlands

Uxanduva lwabalawuli benkampani eNetherlands luhlala luzihloko ekuxoxwa ngazo. Kuninzi okungathetheki malunga noxanduva lwabanini zabelo. Nangona kunjalo, kwenzeka ukuba abanini zabelo banokuxhonywa ngezenzo zabo ngaphakathi kwenkampani ngokomthetho waseDatshi. Xa unokwabelana ngesabelo esinoxanduva ngezenzo zakhe, oku kuchaphazela uxanduva lobuqu, olunokuba nemiphumo enkulu kubomi bomnini zabelo. Ke ngoko, kubalulekile ukuba ubazi ubungozi malunga noxanduva lwabanini zabelo. Iimeko ezahlukileyo ezinokuthi ziphinde zibe khona kuxanduva lwezinto ezinokubanjwa ngabaninizabelo eNetherlands.

1. Uxanduva lwabanini zabelo

Isabelo sabamba izabelo zequmrhu elisemthethweni. NgokweKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi, iqumrhu elisemthethweni lilingana nomntu wendalo xa kufikwa kumalungelo empahla. Oku kuthetha ukuba iqumrhu elisemthethweni linokuba namalungelo kunye nezibophelelo ezifanayo njengomntu wendalo kwaye linakho ukwenza isenzo sezomthetho, njengokufumana ipropathi, ukungena kwisivumelwano okanye ukufaka ifayile yomthetho. Ukusukela ukuba iziko elisemthethweni likho kuphela ephepheni, iziko elisemthethweni kufanele ukuba limelwe ngumntu wendalo, abalawuli (laba). Ngelixa icandelo lezomthetho lisematyaleni akho nawuphi na umonakalo obangelwe zizenzo zalo, abalawuli kwezinye iimeko banokuthi babe noxanduva ngokusekwe kuxanduva lwabalawuli. Nangona kunjalo, oku kuphakamisa umbuzo wokuba ingaba ishejiya sinokuthwala uxanduva ngezenzo zakhe ngokubhekisele kwezomthetho. Ukuchonga uxanduva lwabanini zabelo, izibophelelo zabanini zabelo kufuneka zisekwe. Singakwazi ukwahlula iintlobo ezintathu zezibophelelo ezithile kubanini zabelo: uxanduva olusemthethweni, uxanduva oluvela kumanqaku okubandakanywa kunye nezibophelelo ezivela kwisivumelwano sabanini zabelo.

Uxanduva lwabanini zabelo

1.1 Iimfanelo zabanini zabelo ezivela kumthetho

NgokweKhowudi yeNdawo yaseDatshi, abanini zabelo banembophelelo enye ebalulekileyo: uxanduva lokuhlawula inkampani ngezabelo abazifumanayo. Esi sibophelelo sivela kwinqaku 2: 191 yeKhowudi yeDatshi yaseburhulumenteni kwaye kukuphela kwesibophelelo esicacileyo kubanini zabelo abafumana umthetho. Nangona kunjalo, ngokweenqaku 2: 191 IKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi kunokwenzeka ukuba ichaze kumanqaku okufakwa ukuba izabelo akufuneki zihlawulwe ngokupheleleyo:

Ukubhalisela ukwabiwa kwesabelo, isixa-mali saso kufuneka sihlawulwe kwinkampani. Kuyacaca ukuba isixa-mali, okanye umyinge wexabiso, kufuneka uhlawulwe kuphela emva kwexesha elithile okanye emva kokuba inkampani ibize intlawulo. 

Nangona kunjalo, ukuba into enjalo ibandakanyiwe kumanqaku okufakelwa, kukho amalungiselelo okhusela umntu wesithathu kwimeko yokubhanga. Ukuba inkampani iya ebhankini kwaye izabelo azihlawulwanga ngokupheleleyo ngabanini bezabelo, nokuba kungenxa yoxinzelelo kumanqaku okufakwa ngokudibeneyo, umlondolozi omiselweyo unyanzelekile ukuba afune intlawulo epheleleyo yazo zonke izabelo kubanini zabelo. Oku kuvela kwinqaku 2: I-193 Code yaseDatshi:

Umgcini wenkampani unikwe amandla okufowuna kwaye aqokelele zonke iintlawulo ezinyanzelekileyo ezingekenziwa malunga nezabelo. La mandla akhoyo akukhathaleki nokuba yintoni echaziweyo kule nto kumanqaku okufakelwa okanye achazwe ngokwesiqendu 2: 191 IKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi.

Uxanduva olusemthethweni lwabanini bezabelo ukuhlawula ngokupheleleyo izabelo ezifuna ukuba kubekhona izabelo kuxanduva lwazo. Abanakubekwa tyala ngezenzo zenkampani. Oku kukwavela kwinqaku 2:64 IKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi kunye nenqaku 2: 175 IKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi:

Umnini zabelo akanoxanduva ngokobuqu ngento eyenziweyo egameni lenkampani kwaye akanyanzelekanga ukuba abenegalelo ekulahlekelweni kwenkampani ngaphezulu kokuhlawuleyo okanye kusafuneka ahlawule kwizabelo zakhe.

1.2 Uxanduva lwabanini zabelo abafumana kumanqaku okufakwa

Njengoko kuchaziwe ngentla, abanini zabelo banesibophelelo esinye kuphela esichazayo somthetho: ukuhlawula izabelo zabo. Nangona kunjalo, ukongeza kolu xanduva lomthetho, izibophelelo zabanini zabelo zinokuthi zichazwe kumanqaku okufakwa. Oku kwenzeka ngokwenqaku 2: 192, umhlathi 1 Ikhowudi yeDatshi yaseMelika:

Amanqaku okufakelwa anokuthi, ngokubhekisele kuzo zonke izabelo okanye izabelo zohlobo oluthile:

  1. Chaza ukuba izibophelelo ezithile, ezakwenziwa kwinkampani, ngokubhekisele kumaqela esithathu okanye phakathi kwabanini zabelo zihlanganyelwe kubanini zabelo;
  2. qhoboshela iimfuno kubanini zabelo;
  3. chonga ukuba isheya, kwiimeko ezichaziweyo kumanqaku okufakwa, inyanzelekile ukuba igqithise izabelo zayo okanye inxenye yalo okanye anikezele ngento yokudlulisela izabelo.

Ngokweli nqaku, amanqaku okufakwa angachaza ukuba umnini zabelo anokubanjwa uxanduva lwamatyala enkampani. Kwakhona, iimeko zokuxhasa inkampani zinokuchazwa. La malungiselelo andisa uxanduva lwabanini zabelo. Nangona kunjalo, amalungiselelo anje awanakuchazwa ngokuchasene nokuthanda kwabanini zabelo. Banokuchazwa kuphela xa abanini zabelo bavumelana namalungiselelo. Oku kuvela kwinqaku 2: 192, umhlathi 1 Ikhowudi yeDatshi yaseburhulumenteni:

Isibophelelo okanye imfuneko njengoko kuchaziwe kwisivakalisi esingaphambili phantsi (a), (b) okanye (c) ayinakubekwa kumnini zabelo ngokuchasene nentando yakhe, nokuba kungaphantsi kwemiqathango okanye ixesha elimiselweyo.

Ukwenzela ukuchaza izibophelelo ezongezekileyo zabanini zabelo kumanqaku okufakwa, isigqibo sabanini zabelo kufuneka sithathwe yiNtlanganiso Jikelele yabaNtsabelo. Ukuba owabelana nezabelo uvota ngokuchaza uxanduva olongezelelekileyo okanye iimfuno zabanini zabelo kumanqaku okufakelwa, akanakubekwa tyala ngokubhekisele kwezi zibophelelo okanye iimfuno.

1.3 Uxanduva lwabanini zabelo abafumana kwisivumelwano sabanini zabelo

Abanini zabelo banokwazi ukwenza isivumelwano sesabelo. Isivumelwano sabaninizabelo kugqitywa phakathi kwabanini zabelo kwaye sinamalungelo ongezelelweyo noxanduva lwabanini zabelo. Isivumelwano sabaninizabelo sisebenza kuphela kubanini zabelo, oko akuchaphazeli umntu wesithathu. Ukuba owabelana ngesabelo akahambelani nemvumelwano yezabelo, unokubekwa uxanduva lomonakalo ovela kule nto ukusilela ukuthobela. Oluxanduva luya kusekelwa kukusilela ekuthobeleni isivumelwano, esivela kwinqaku le-6:74 leKhowudi yaseDatshi. Nangona kunjalo, ukuba kukho kuphela umnini zabelo ophethe zonke izabelo zenkampani, akunyanzelekanga ukuba enze isivumelwano sabanini zabelo.

2. Uxanduva lwezenzo ezingekho mthethweni

Ecaleni kwezi zibophelelo ezithile zabanini zabelo, uxanduva ngokubhekisele kwizenzo ezingekho mthethweni kufuneka kuthathelwe ingqalelo xa kusenziwa isigqibo malunga nobutyala bezabelo. Wonke umntu unyanzelekile enze ngokomthetho. Xa umntu esenza ngokungekho mthethweni, unokubekwa ityala ngokusekwe kwinqaku le-6: 162 leKhowudi yaseDatshi. Umnini zabelo unoxanduva lokwenza ngokusemthethweni kubabolekisi, abatyali mali, abathengisi nakwabanye abantu besithathu. Ukuba owabelana ngesabelo akakho semthethweni, unokubekwa uxanduva ngeli nyathelo. Xa isheya lenza into ngendlela enokuthi isityholo esityholwa ngaye, isenzo esingekho mthethweni sinokwamkelwa. Umzekelo wezenzo ezingekho mthethweni ngumnini zabelo kungaba kukusasaza inzuzo ngelixa kubonakala ukuba inkampani ayisenakubahlawula abatyalayo emva kwale ntlawulo.

Ngapha koko, ukusebenza ngokungekho semthethweni ngabanini zabelo ngamanye amaxesha kunokubakho ngokuthengisa izabelo kubantu besithathu. Kulindelwe ukuba umntu ozahluleleyo, ukuya kuthi ga kwinqanaba elithile, aqalise uphando kulowo mntu okanye kwinkampani afuna ukuyithengisa kwizabelo zakhe. Ukuba uphando olunjalo lubonisa ukuba inkampani apho izabelo zibambe izabelo ngokuqinisekileyo ayinakuba nakho ukuzalisekisa uxanduva lwayo emva kokudluliswa kwezabelo, lowo wabelana naye kulindeleke ukuba athabathe ingqalelo iimfuno zababolekisi. Oku kuthetha ukuba umnini zabelo phantsi kweemeko ezithile unokubekwa uxanduva ngokwakhe xa egqithisela izabelo zakhe komnye umntu kwaye oku kudlulisa kubangela ukuba inkampani ingakwazi ukuhlawula abo bayityalayo.

3. Uxanduva lwabenza imigaqo-nkqubo

Okokugqibela, uxanduva lwabaninizabelo lungavela xa isheya lisebenza njengomenzi womgaqo-nkqubo. Ngokomgaqo, abalawuli banomsebenzi wokuqhuba ikhosi yesiqhelo yeziganeko ngaphakathi kwinkampani. Lo ayingomsebenzi wabanini zabelo. Nangona kunjalo, abanini zabelo banokwazi ukunika imiyalelo yabalawuli. Oku kungenzeka ukuba kubandakanywe kumanqaku okufakwa. Ngokwenqaku 2: 239, umhlathi 4 IKhowudi yeDatshi yaseDatshi, abalawuli kufuneka balandele imiyalelo yabanini zabelo, ngaphandle kokuba le miyalelo ichasene nezinto ezifunwa yinkampani:

Amanqaku okufakwa angabonelela ukuba ibhodi yabalawuli kufuneka isebenze ngokwemiyalelo yelinye iqumrhu lombutho. Ibhodi yabalawuli inyanzeliswa ukuba ilandele imiyalelo ngaphandle kokuba iyangqubana nemidla yombutho okanye yeshishini elihlangene nayo.

Nangona kunjalo, kubaluleke kakhulu ukuba abanini zabelo banikeze kuphela imiyalelo ngokubanzi.[1] Izabelo azinakho ukunika imiyalelo malunga nezihloko ezithile okanye iintshukumo. Umzekelo, umntu ongabelana naye ngekhe anike umyaleli imiyalelo yokufaka umlilo kumqeshwa. Abanini zabelo abanakuthatha inxaxheba yomlawuli. Ukuba izabelo zisebenza njengabalawuli, kwaye ziqhuba ikhosi yesiqhelo yeziganeko zenkampani, zihlelwa njengabenzi bomgaqo-nkqubo kwaye ziya kuphathwa njengabalawuli. Oku kuthetha ukuba banokuthwala uxanduva lomonakalo ovela kumgaqo-nkqubo osetyenzisiweyo. Ke ngoko, banokugwetywa ngokusekwe kuxanduva lwabalawuli ukuba inkampani iyabhenka.[2] Oku kuvela kwinqaku 2: 138, umhlathi 7 IKhowudi yeDatshi yaseburhulumenteni kunye nenqaku 2: 248, umhlathi 7 IKhowudi yeDemokhrasi yesiDatshi:

Ngenjongo yeli nqaku, umntu oye wagqiba okanye wamisela umgaqo-nkqubo wequmrhu ngokungathi ngumlawuli, ulingana nomlawuli.

Inqaku lesi-2: 216, umhlathi 4 IKhowudi yeDatshi yaseburhulumenteni nayo ikwatsho ukuba umntu omisele okanye oyimiseleyo umgaqo-nkqubo wenkampani ulingana nomlawuli, kwaye ke unokubanjwa uxanduva ngokusekwe kuxanduva lwabalawuli.

4. Isiphelo

Ngokomgaqo, inkampani inoxanduva lomonakalo ovela kwizenzo zayo. Phantsi kweemeko ezithile, abalawuli banokubanjwa uxanduva. Nangona kunjalo, kubalulekile ukukhumbula ukuba abanini zabelo zenkampani banako ukubekwa tyala lomonakalo kwiimeko ezithile. Isabelo masibenakho ukwenza zonke iintlobo zezenzo ngaphandle kokungathintelwa. Ngelixa oku kunokuvakala kusengqiqweni, ngokuziqhelanisa nokuqwalaselwa okuncinci kuhlawulwa kuxanduva lwabanini zabelo. Izabelo zineembophelelo ezivela kumthetho, amanqaku okubandakanya kunye nesivumelwano sabanini zabelo. Xa abanini zabelo bengaphumeleli ukuthobela ezi zibophelelo, banokugwetywa ngenxa yomonakalo obangelwe.

Ngapha koko, abanini zabelo, njengawo wonke umntu, kufuneka benze ngokomthetho. Ukwenza isenzo ngokungekho semthethweni kunokubangela uxanduva kumnini zabelo. Okokugqibela, umnini zabelo kufuneka asebenze njengezabelo hayi njengomlawuli. Xa owabelana ngesabelo eqala ukuqhuba ikhosi yesiqhelo yeziganeko ngaphakathi kwenkampani, uya kufaniswa nomlawuli. Kule meko, uxanduva lwabalawuli lungasebenza nakwabaninizabelo. Iya kuba bubulumko abanini zabelo ukugcina le mingcipheko engqondweni, ukuthintela uxanduva lwabanini zabelo.

Iinkcukacha zoqhagamshelwano

Ukuba unemibuzo okanye izimvo emva kokufunda eli nqaku, nceda ukhululeke ukunxibelelana noMnumzana Mnu. Maxim Hodak, igqwetha ku- Law & More nge-maxim.hodak@lawandmore.nl, okanye uMnu. UTom Meevis, igqwetha ku Law & More nge tom.meevis@lawandmore.nl, okanye utsalele umnxeba ku-31 (0) 40-3690680.

[1] ECLI: NL: HR: 1955: AG2033 (Forumbank).

[2] ECLI: NL: HR: 2015: 522 (Hollandse Glascentrale Beheer BV).

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