Uxanduva lomnini-mhlaba

Isivumelwano sokurenta sinemiba eyahlukeneyo. Into ebalulekileyo yoku ngumnini-ndlu kunye noxanduva analo malunga nomqeshi. Indawo yokuqala ngokubhekisele kwizibophelelo zomnini-mhlaba “kokonwaba okunokulindelwa ngumqeshi ngokusekwe kwisivumelwano sokurenta”. Emva kwayo yonke loo nto, uxanduva lomnini-mhlaba lusondele kakhulu kumalungelo omqeshi. Ngokwendlela ephathekayo, le ndawo yokuqala ithetha izibophelelo ezibini ezibalulekileyo kumnini-mhlaba. Okokuqala, uxanduva lweNqaku 7: 203 BW yokwenza into ifumaneke kumqeshi. Ukongeza, uxanduva lolondolozo lusebenza kumnini-mhlaba, okanye ngamanye amagama ukumiselwa kweziphene kwi-Article 7: 204 ye-Dutch Civil Code. Zithini kanye kanye ezi mbophelelo zomnini-ndlu, ziya kuxoxwa ngokulandelelana kule bhlog.

Uxanduva lomnini-mfanekiso

Ukwenza ukuba ipropathi eqeshiweyo ifumaneke

Ngokubhekisele kwimbophelelo yokuqala yomnini-ndawo, iNqaku 7: 203 yeDutch Civil Code icacisa ukuba umnini-mhlaba unyanzelekile ukuba enze ipropathi yerenti ifumaneke kumqeshi kwaye ayishiye ukuya kwinqanaba elifanelekileyo ekusetyenzisweni ekuvunyelwene ngayo. Iinkxalabo zokusetyenziswa ekuvunyelwene ngazo, umzekelo, ukurenta:

  • (indawo ezimeleyo okanye engaqulathwanga) indawo yokuhlala;
  • indawo yeshishini, ngengqondo yendawo yokuthengisa;
  • enye indawo yeshishini kunye neeofisi njengoko kuchaziwe kwiNqaku 7: 203a BW

Kubalulekile ukuba uchaze ngokucacileyo kwikhontrakthi yerenti ukuba loluphi usetyenziso ekuvunyelwene ngalo ngamaqela. Emva kwayo yonke loo nto, impendulo kumbuzo wokuba ingaba umnini-mhlaba ulufezekisile uxanduva lwakhe luya kuxhomekeka kwinto echazwe ngamaqela kwisivumelwano sokuqeshisa ngokubhekisele kwindawo ekuqeshwa kuyo. Kubalulekile ke ngoko ukuba ungachazi indawo ekuyiwa kuyo, okanye ubuncinci bokusetyenziswa, kwisivumelwano sokuqeshisa, kodwa ikwachaze ngokweenkcukacha ezingakumbi anokulindela umqeshi kuwo ngokusekelwe koko. Kule meko, ichaphazela, umzekelo, izibonelelo ezisisiseko eziyimfuneko ukusebenzisa ipropathi eqeshiweyo ngendlela ethile. Umzekelo, ukusetyenziswa kwesakhiwo njengendawo yokuthengisa, umqeshi unokuchaza ukubakho kwekhawuntari, iishelfu ezisisigxina okanye ukwahlula iindonga, kunye neemfuno ezahlukileyo ngokupheleleyo kwindawo eqeshiweyo umzekelo eyenzelwe ukugcinwa kwephepha inokucwangciswa kule meko ibuziweyo.

Uxanduva lwesondlo (ukuhlawula ityala lonke)

Kwimeko yesibophelelo sesibini somnini-mhlaba, iNqaku 7: 206 yeDutch Civil Code icacisa ukuba umnini-mhlaba unyanzelekile ukuba alungise iziphene. Yintoni ekufuneka iqondwe sisiphene iphinda icaciswe kwiNqaku 7: 204 yeKhowudi yoLuntu: isiphene yimeko okanye uphawu lwepropathi ngenxa yoko ipropathi ingenakho ukunika umqeshi ukonwaba anokulindela ngesiseko sesivumelwano sokurenta. Ngalo nto, ngokweNkundla ePhakamileyo, ukonwaba kubandakanya okungaphezulu nje kwemeko yepropathi eqeshiweyo okanye iipropathi zayo ezibonakalayo. Ezinye iimeko zokuthintela ukonwaba nazo zinokubangela isiphene ngaphakathi kwentsingiselo yeNqaku 7: 204 BW. Kule meko, cinga, umzekelo, ukufikeleleka okulindelekileyo, ukufikelela kunye nokubonakala kwepropathi eqeshiweyo.

Nangona ilixesha elibanzi, kubandakanya zonke iimeko ezithintela ukonwaba komqeshi, okulindelwe ngumqeshi akufuneki kudlule kulindelo lomqeshi ophakathi. Ngamanye amagama, oku kuthetha ukuba umqeshi akanakulindela ngaphezulu kwepropathi egcinwe kakuhle. Ukongeza, iindidi ezahlukeneyo zezinto eziqeshisayo ziya kuphakamisa ulindelo lwabo, ngokomthetho wamatyala.

Ngayiphi na imeko, akukho siphako ukuba into eqeshisayo ayinikezeli umqeshi ngokonwaba okulindelweyo ngenxa:

  • imeko ebangelwe ngumqeshi ngokwesiseko sesiphoso okanye umngcipheko. Umzekelo, iziphene ezincinci kwipropathi eqeshiweyo ngokujonga ulwabiwo lomngcipheko ngokusemthethweni zezakwiakhawunti yomqeshi.
  • Imeko enxulumene nomqeshi buqu. Oku kunokubandakanya, umzekelo, umda ophantsi kakhulu wokunyamezelana ngokubhekisele kwimisindo eqhelekileyo evela kwabanye abaqeshi.
  • Ukuphazamiseka okwenyani ngabantu besithathu, njengengxolo yezithuthi okanye ukuphazamiseka kwengxolo kumhlaba osecaleni kwepropathi eqeshiweyo.
  • Isimangalo ngaphandle kwesiphazamiso sokwenyani, siyimeko apho, umzekelo, ummelwane womqeshi kuphela ebanga ukuba unelungelo lokungena kwigadi yomqeshi, ngaphandle kokuyisebenzisa.

Isohlwayo kwimeko yokophula ezona zibophelelo ziphambili ngumnini-mhlaba

Ukuba umnini-mhlaba akakwazi ukwenza ukuba ipropathi eqeshiweyo ifumaneke kumqeshi ngexesha, ngokupheleleyo okanye konke, ke kukho ukusilela kwicala lomnini-mhlaba. Kukwasebenza kwanjalo kuyo ukuba kukho isiphako. Kuzo zombini iimeko, ukusilela kubandakanya isohlwayo kumnini-mhlaba kwaye kunika umqeshi inani lamagunya kule meko, njengebango:

  • ukuthobela. Umqeshi unokufuna ke kumnini-mhlaba ukuba enze ipropathi eqeshiweyo ifumaneke ngexesha, ngokupheleleyo okanye konke, okanye ukulungisa isiphako. Nangona kunjalo, lo gama umqeshi angafuni ukuba umnini-mhlaba alungiswe, umnini-mhlaba usenokungasilungisi isiphene. Nangona kunjalo, ukuba iyeza alinakwenzeka okanye alinangqiqo, umhlawuli akufuneki enze njalo. Kwelinye icala, umqeshi ukwala ukulungiswa okanye engakwenzi oko ekuhambeni kwexesha, umqeshi unokuzilungisa ngokwakhe kwaye athabathe iindleko zerhafu.
  • Ukuncitshiswa kwerente. Le yenye indlela yomqeshi ukuba ipropathi eqeshiweyo ayenziwa ifumaneke ngexesha okanye iphelele ngumqeshi, okanye ukuba kukho isiphako. Ukuncitshiswa kwerente kufuneka kwenziwe inkundla okanye ikomiti yovavanyo yerente. Ibango kufuneka lingeniswe kwiinyanga ezi-6 emva kokuba umqeshi exele isiphene kumnini-mhlaba. Ukususela ngelo xesha ukuya phambili, ukuncitshiswa kwerente kuya kusebenza. Nangona kunjalo, ukuba umqeshi uvumela ukuba liphele eli xesha, ilungelo lakhe lokuncitshiswa kwirente liya kuncitshiswa, kodwa aliyi kuphelelwa.
  • Ukupheliswa kwesivumelwano sokuqesha ukuba ukungabikho kwerenti kwenza ukuba ulonwabo lungabi nakho kwaphela. Ukuba isiphako ekungafunekiyo ukuba umqeshi asilungise, umzekelo kuba iyeza alinakwenzeka okanye lifuna inkcitho engenakulindeleka ngokufanelekileyo kuye kwiimeko ezinikiweyo, kodwa loo nto yenza ukuba ukonwaba okulindelwe ngumqeshi kungalindeki ngokupheleleyo, bobabini umqeshi kunye umncinanana uyayichitha ingqeshiso. Kuzo zombini iimeko, oku kunokwenziwa kusetyenziswa ingxelo engenamthetho. Rhoqo, nangona kunjalo, ayingawo onke amaqela avumayo ukususwa, ukuze iinkqubo zomthetho kusafuneka zilandelwe.
  • Ukuhlawulelwa. Eli bango libangelwa kuphela ngumqeshi ukuba ukusilela, njengobukho besiphene, nako kunokubangelwa ngumnini-mhlaba. Kwimeko enjalo, umzekelo, ukuba isiphako savela emva kokungena kuqeshiso kwaye kunokubangelwa ngumqeshi kuba, umzekelo, khange enze ulondolozo olwaneleyo kwipropathi eqeshiweyo. Kodwa kwakhona, ukuba isiphako esithile besele sikhona xa kuqeshwe kuqeshwe kwaye umqeshi ebesazi ngelo xesha, bekufanele ukuba uyazi okanye wazise umqeshi ukuba ipropathi eqeshiweyo ayinasiphene.

Ngaba ungumqeshi okanye umnini-mhlaba obandakanyekayo kwimpikiswano malunga nokuba umnini-mhlaba uyahlangabezana nale miqathango? Okanye ngaba ufuna ukwazi ngakumbi, umzekelo, ngokubeka isohlwayo ngokuchasene nomnini-mhlaba? Emva koko qhagamshelana Law & More. Wethu amagqwetha ezindlu nemihlaba ziingcali kumthetho wokuqesha kwaye bayakuvuyela ukukunika uncedo lwezomthetho okanye ingcebiso. Nokuba ungumqeshi okanye umnini-mhlaba, e Law & More sithatha indlela yobuqu kwaye kunye nawe siyakuyijonga imeko yakho kwaye siqwalasele isicwangciso (sokulandela).

isabelo