Ukuqwalaselwa kunye nokunyanzeliswa kwesigwebo sentshabalalo yaseRussia

Kwiikontraka ezininzi zikazwelonke nezorhwebo zamanye amazwe, zihlala zithanda ukucwangcisa i-arbitrage ukusombulula iimbambano zeshishini. Oku kuthetha ukuba eli tyala liza kunikezelwa kumlamli endaweni yenkundla yenkundla kazwelonke. Ukusetyenziswa kwamabhaso okulamla kugqitywa, kuyafuneka ukuba umgwebi welizwe lokuphumeza anikezele ngembuyekezo. Isiphumo esibonisa ukuthathelwa kwembambano yokulamla kwaye silingane nomgwebo osemthethweni onokuthi unyanzeliswe okanye uphunyezwe. Imigaqo yokwamkelwa nokunyanzeliswa kwesigqibo sasemzini ilawulwa kwiNgqungquthela yaseNew York. Le ndibano yamkelwa yinkomfa yozakuzo yeZizwe eziManyeneyo nge-10 kaJuni ngo-1958 eNew York. Le ndibano yagqitywa ngokuyintloko yokulawula kunye nokwenza lula inkqubo yokwamkelwa nokunyanzeliswa kwesigwebo somthetho wezangaphandle phakathi kwamazwe angena kwimvumelwano.

Okwangoku, indibano yaseNew York inama-159 amaqela ezopolitiko.

Xa kuziwa ekuqwalaselweni nasekunyanzelisweni okusekwe kwinqaku le-V (1) leNgqungquthela yaseNew York, ijaji iyavunyelwa ukuba ibe negunya lokuzikhethela kwiimeko ezizodwa. Ngokuyintloko, ijaji ayivumelekanga ukuba ihlole okanye iqinisekise ukuba umxholo wesigwebo somthetho kwiimeko malunga nokwamkelwa nokunyanzeliswa. Nangona kunjalo, kukho okungafaniyo ngokunxulumene neempawu ezinzulu zesiphene esibalulekileyo kwisigwebo somthetho, ukuze ingathathelwa ingqalelo njengelingo elifanelekileyo. Okunye okungaqhelekanga kulo mgaqo kuyasebenza ukuba kufanelekile ukuba kwimeko yetyala elifanelekileyo, oko bekuya kukhokelela nasekutshatyalalisweni komgwebo osemthethweni. Ityala elilandelayo elibalulekileyo leBhunga eliPhakamileyo libonisa ukuba kungasetyenziswa kangakanani kwimisebenzi yemihla ngemihla. Umbuzo ophambili kukuba okanye ibhaso lokulamla elichithwe yinkundla yezomthetho yaseRussia, lisenokudlulisa inkqubo yokuvuma nokunyanzeliswa eNetherlands.

Ukuqwalaselwa kunye nokunyanzeliswa kwesigwebo sentshabalalo yaseRussia

Ityala limalunga nombutho osemthethweni waseRussia ongumvelisi wensimbi osebenza kwilizwe jikelele ogama lingu-OJSC Novolipetsky Metallurgichesky Kombinat (NLMK). Umvelisi wensimbi ngowona mqeshi mkhulu wengingqi yaseRussia iLetsetsk. Uninzi lwezabelo zenkampani zezomashishini waseRussia u-VS Lisin. ILisin ikwangumnini weendawo zokuhambisa iimpahla eSt. ILisin ibambe isikhundla esiphakamileyo kwinkampani yaseRussia i-United Shipping Corporation kwaye inomdla nakwinkampani yaseRussia Freight One, eyinkampani kaloliwe. Ngokusekwe kwiMvumelwano yokuThenga, ebandakanya inkqubo yokuLamla, omabini amaqela avumile ukuthengwa kunye nokuthengiswa kwezabelo ze-NLMK zeLisin kwi-NLMK. Emva kwengxabano kunye nokuhlawulwa kade kwexabiso lokuthenga egameni le-NLKM, uLisin uthatha isigqibo sokuzisa lo mbandela kwiNkundla yezoLuleko yeArhente yezoRhwebo yeHlabathi kwiChamber yeRhwebo kunye neShishini leRussian Federation kunye nokufuna intlawulo yexabiso lokuthenga ngezabelo, oko kukuthi kuye, i-ruble ezi-14,7 zezigidi. I-NLMK ithi kwisigqibo sayo sokuba uLisin sele efumene intlawulo kwangaphambili nto leyo ethi inani lexabiso lokuthenga litshintshele kwii-ruble ezingama-5,9 billion.

Ngo-Matshi ka-2011 inkqubo yolwaphulo-mthetho yaqalwa ngokuchasene neLisin ngokurhanela ubuqhophololo njengenxalenye yokuthengiselana kwezabelo kunye ne-NLMK kunye nokukrokrela ukulahlekisa inkundla ye-Arbitration kwimeko echasene ne-NLMK. Nangona kunjalo, izikhalazo khange zikhokelele ekutshutshisweni kolwaphulo-mthetho.

Inkundla ye-Arbitration, apho ityala phakathi kweLisin ne-NLMK lizisiwe ematyaleni, yagweba i-NLMK ukuba ihlawule ixabiso elisele lokuthenga nge-ruble eziyi-8,9 kwaye yawala omabini amabango. Ixabiso lokuthenga libalwa kamva lisuselwa kwisiqingatha sexabiso lokuthengwa nguLisin (i-ruble engama-22,1 yezigidi) kunye nexabiso elibaliweyo yi-NLMK (i-ruble ezili-1,4 bhiliyoni). Ngokumalunga nentlawulo eqhubekileyo inkundla igwebe i-NLMK ukuba ihlawule i-ruble eziyi-8,9 yezigidi. Isibheno esichasene nesigqibo senkundla ye-Arbitration asinakwenzeka kwaye i-NLMK ibanga, ngokusekwe kwizityholo zangaphambili zokurhanelwa okwenziwe nguLisin, ngokutshutshiswa kwembambano yokulamla yiNkundla yaseArbitrazh kwisixeko saseMoscow. Ibango linikezelwe kwaye ibhaso lokulamla liya kutshiswa.

ILisin ayizukuyimela le nto kwaye ifuna ukulandela umyalelo wokugcina kwizabelo ezigcinwe yi-NLMK kwikomkhulu layo le-NLMK BV yamazwe onke eAmsterdam. Ukutshatyalaliswa kwesi sigwebo kuye kwenza ukuba kungabikho mfuneko yokuba kulandelwe ukugcinwa kwe-Russia. Ke ngoko, isicelo seLisin sokuvunywa nokunyanzeliswa kwibhaso lokulamla. Isicelo sakhe saliwe. Ngokusekwe kwindibano yaseNew York kuyinto eqhelekileyo kwabasemagunyeni abanobuchule belizwe apho inkqubo yezobulungisa ibekwa khona (kule meko iinkundla eziqhelekileyo zaseRussia) ukuthatha isigqibo ngaphakathi komthetho welizwe, malunga nokutshabalalisa amabhaso okulamla. Ngokomgaqo, inkundla yokunyanzeliswa ayivumelekanga ukuba ihlole la mabhaso okulamla. INkundla kwiNkqubo yokuThatyathwa kweMida ithathela ingqalelo ukuba ibhaso lokulamla alinakuphunyezwa, kuba alisekho.

U-Lisin wafaka isibheno ngokuchasene nesi sigwebo kwiNkundla yeZibheno ye-Amsterdam. INkundla ithathela ingqalelo ukuba ngokomgaqo-bhaso othile ophumeleleyo wokugweba akasayi kuthathela ingqalelo nakuphi na ukwamkelwa nokunyanzeliswa ngaphandle kokuba kuyimeko eyodwa. Kukho ityala elingaqhelekanga ukuba kukho izibonakaliso eziqinileyo zokuba isigwebo seenkundla zaseRussia sineziphene ezibalulekileyo, ukuze oku kungathathelwa ingqalelo njengelityala elifanelekileyo. Inkundla yezibheno yase-Amsterdam ayiqwalaseli eli tyala njengelodwa.

ILisin yafaka isibheno ngokuqinisekisa malunga nesi sigwebo. Ngokuka-Lisin inkundla ikwahlulekile ukubulela amandla e-discretionary anikezwe inkundla ngokusekwe kwinqaku V (1) (e) elivavanya ukuba umgwebo wentshabalalo welinye ilizwe unokuyigqiba inkqubo yokunyanzeliswa kwembasa yokulamla eNetherlands. IBhunga eliPhakamileyo lathelekisa ingxelo eyinyani yesiNgesi kunye nesiFrentshi kwisibhalo seNgqungquthela. Zombini ezi nguqulelo zibonakala ngathi zinenkcazo eyahlukileyo ngokubhekisele kumandla enkundla anikezwe inkundla. Inguqulelo yesiNgesi yenqaku V (1) (e) ichaza oku kulandelayo:

  1. Ukwamkelwa nokunyanzeliswa kwibhaso kunokwaliwa, ngokwesicelo seqela elichaselweyo, kuphela ukuba iqela elo linikezela kwabasemagunyeni abanobuchule apho ukwamkelwa nokunyanzeliswa kufuna khona, ubungqina bokuba:

(...)

  1. e) Ibhaso alikafikeleli ekubopheni amaqela, okanye libekelwe bucala okanye lanqunyanyiswa ligunya lelizwe apho, okanye phantsi komthetho, apho loo mbasa wenziwayo.

Inguqulelo yesiFrentshi yenqaku V (1) (e) ichaza oku kulandelayo:

1. I-La reconnaissance et l'exécution de la isivakalisi ne-seront refusées, ngenxa yokufuna ukujongana nemeko yophando, oko kucekeceke, ukubekelwa ecaleni kwentlawulo.

(...)

  1. e) Isigwebo esigqithileyo kwisigqibo sokudityaniswa kwerhafu sishiya amaqela athabathe inxaxheba kwisigqibo sokuhlawula irhafu, isigwebo esenziwe ngesiquphe.

Amandla okhetho lwenguqulelo yesiNgesi ('banokwaliwa') abonakala ebanzi kune inguqulelo yesiFrentshi ('ne seront refusées que si'). IBhunga eliPhakamileyo lafumana ukutolikwa okuninzi okwahlukeneyo kwezinye izibonelelo malunga nokusetyenziswa kwendibano.

IBhunga eliPhakamileyo lizama ukucacisa ukutolika okwahlukileyo ngokongeza ezalo iinkcazo. Oku kuthetha ukuba amandla okhetho anokusetyenziswa kuphela xa kukho umhlaba wokwala ngokweNgqungquthela. Kule meko yayimalunga nesizathu sokwala ukubhekisa 'ekutshatyalalisweni kwebhaso lokulamla'. Kuxhomekeke eLisin ukungqina ngokusekwe kwiinyani nakwiimeko ukuba umhlaba wokwala awunasihlahla.

IBhunga eliPhakamileyo labelana ngokupheleleyo ngombono weNkundla yeZibheno. Kunokubakho kuphela ityala elikhethekileyo ngokweNkundla ePhakamileyo xa kutshutshiswa ibhaso lokulamla ngokubhekisele kwizizathu ezingahambelani nezizathu zokwala kwenqaku V (1). Nangona inkundla yaseDatshi inikwe amandla okhetho kwimeko yokuvunywa nokunyanzeliswa, ayisebenzi isicelo somgwebo kwityala elithile. Isichaso esenziwe nguLisin asinalo ithuba lokuphumelela.

Esi sigwebo seBhunga eliPhakamileyo sinika ukucaciswa okucacileyo apho inqaku V (1) lendibano yaseNew York kufuneka litolikwe khona kwimeko yamandla okhethe anikezwe inkundla ngexesha lokuvunywa nokunyanzelwa kwesigwebo sentshabalalo. Oku kuthetha, ngokufutshane, ukuba kuphela kwiimeko ezithile intshabalalo yomgwebo inokugqitha.

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