Ukuqwalaselwa kunye nokunyanzeliswa kwesigwebo sentshabalalo yaseRussia

Kwiinkontileka ezininzi zorhwebo zikazwelonke nezamazwe aphesheya, bahlala bekhokelela ekulungiseleleni iarbitrage ukulungisa iingxabano zeshishini. Oku kuthetha ukuba ityala liya kwabelwa umlamli endaweni yomgwebi wenkundla kazwelonke. Ukuze kuphunyezwe ibhaso lomlamli eligqityiweyo, kufuneka ijaji yelizwe yokuphumeza ibonelele ngomzekelo. I-exequatur ithetha ukwamkelwa kwembasa yomlamli kunye nokulingana nomthetho osemthethweni onokuthi unyanzeliswe okanye uphunyezwe. Imithetho yokwamkelwa nokunyanzeliswa kwesigwebo sangaphandle ilawulwa kwiNgqungquthela yaseNew York. Le ngqungquthela yamkelwa yinkomfa yoonozakuzaku beZizwe eziManyeneyo ngomhla we-10 kuJuni 1958 eNew York. Le ngqungquthela yagqitywa ngokuyintloko ukulawula nokuququzelela inkqubo yokwamkelwa nokunyanzeliswa kwesigwebo somthetho wamanye amazwe phakathi kwamazwe angene kwisivumelwano.

Okwangoku, indibano yaseNew York inamaqela aseburhulumenteni ali-159

Xa kuziwa ekuqwalaselweni nasekunyanzelisweni ngokusekwe kwinqaku V (1) leNgqungquthela yaseNew York, ijaji livunyelwe ukuba negunya lokuzikhethela kwiimeko ezizodwa. Ngokomgaqo, ijaji ayivumelekanga ukuba iphonononge okanye ivavanye umxholo wesigwebo somthetho kumatyala aphathelene nokwamkelwa nokunyanzeliswa. Nangona kunjalo, kukho ukungahambelani ngokunxulumene nokubonakaliswa okunobuzaza kweziphene ezibalulekileyo kwisigwebo somthetho, ukuze singathathwa njengelona tyala lilungileyo. Omnye ngaphandle kwalo mgaqo uyasebenza ukuba kufanelekile ngokwaneleyo ukuba kwimeko yetyala elinobulungisa, ngekwakukhokelele ekutshatyalalisweni kwesigwebo somthetho. Eli tyala libalulekileyo leBhunga eliPhakamileyo libonisa ukuba kungasetyenziswa kangakanani na kusetyenzwa ngaphandle kwimihla ngemihla. Umbuzo ophambili ngowokuba ingaba ibhaso lokulamla eliye lonakaliswa yinkundla yezomthetho yaseRussia, lisengadlula kwinkqubo yokuqonda neyokunyanzelisa eNetherlands.

Ukuqwalaselwa kunye nokunyanzeliswa kwesigwebo sentshabalalo yaseRussia

Ityala limalunga neziko laseRussia elingumvelisi wentsimbi osebenza kwilizwe liphela ogama lingu-OJSC Novolipetsky Metallurgichesky Kombinat (NLMK). Umvelisi wentsimbi ngoyena mqeshi mkhulu wengingqi yaseRipetsk. Uninzi lwezabelo zenkampani ziphantsi kosomashishini waseRussia VS Lisin. I-Lisin ikwangumnini wamazibuko othutho eSt. Petersburg naseTuapse. U-Lisin ubambe isikhundla esiphezulu kwinkampani yaseburhulumenteni yase-United i-United Shipbuilding Corporation kwaye unomdla kwinkampani yaseburhulumenteni yase-Russia i-Freight One, eyinkampani kaloliwe. Ngokusekwe kwisiVumelwano sokuThenga, esibandakanya ukuxoxwa kwetyala, omabini amaqela avumile ukuthengwa nokuthengiswa kwezabelo ze-NLMK ze-Lisin kwi-NLMK. Emva kwengxabano kunye nokuhlawulwa kade kwexabiso lokuthenga egameni le-NLKM, u-Lisin ugqiba kwelokuba awuzise lo mbandela kwiNkundla yoLamlo lwezoRhwebo lwaMazwe ngaMazwe kwiChamber of Commerce and Industry yeRussian Federation kwaye afune ukuhlawulwa kwexabiso lentengo yezabelo, oko kukuthi kuye, iirandi ezili-14,7 zeebhiliyoni. Ukuziphendulela kwakhe u-NLMK uthi u-Lisin sele efumene intlawulo kwangaphambili oko kuthetha ukuba ixabiso lentengo litshintshile laba yi-ruble ezi-5,9 zeebhiliyoni.

Ngo-Matshi ka-2011 inkqubo yolwaphulo-mthetho yaqalwa ngokuchasene neLisin ngokurhanela ubuqhophololo njengenxalenye yokuthengiselana kwezabelo kunye ne-NLMK kunye nokukrokrela ukulahlekisa inkundla ye-Arbitration kwimeko echasene ne-NLMK. Nangona kunjalo, izikhalazo khange zikhokelele ekutshutshisweni kolwaphulo-mthetho.

Inkundla ye-Arbitration, apho ityala phakathi kweLisin ne-NLMK lizisiwe ematyaleni, yagweba i-NLMK ukuba ihlawule ixabiso elisele lokuthenga nge-ruble eziyi-8,9 kwaye yawala omabini amabango. Ixabiso lokuthenga libalwa kamva lisuselwa kwisiqingatha sexabiso lokuthengwa nguLisin (i-ruble engama-22,1 yezigidi) kunye nexabiso elibaliweyo yi-NLMK (i-ruble ezili-1,4 bhiliyoni). Ngokumalunga nentlawulo eqhubekileyo inkundla igwebe i-NLMK ukuba ihlawule i-ruble eziyi-8,9 yezigidi. Isibheno esichasene nesigqibo senkundla ye-Arbitration asinakwenzeka kwaye i-NLMK ibanga, ngokusekwe kwizityholo zangaphambili zokurhanelwa okwenziwe nguLisin, ngokutshutshiswa kwembambano yokulamla yiNkundla yaseArbitrazh kwisixeko saseMoscow. Ibango linikezelwe kwaye ibhaso lokulamla liya kutshiswa.

ILisin ayizukuyimela le nto kwaye ifuna ukulandela umyalelo wokugcina kwizabelo ezigcinwe yi-NLMK kwikomkhulu layo le-NLMK BV yamazwe onke eAmsterdam. Ukutshatyalaliswa kwesi sigwebo kuye kwenza ukuba kungabikho mfuneko yokuba kulandelwe ukugcinwa kwe-Russia. Ke ngoko, isicelo seLisin sokuvunywa nokunyanzeliswa kwibhaso lokulamla. Isicelo sakhe saliwe. Ngokusekwe kwindibano yaseNew York kuyinto eqhelekileyo kwabasemagunyeni abanobuchule belizwe apho inkqubo yezobulungisa ibekwa khona (kule meko iinkundla eziqhelekileyo zaseRussia) ukuthatha isigqibo ngaphakathi komthetho welizwe, malunga nokutshabalalisa amabhaso okulamla. Ngokomgaqo, inkundla yokunyanzeliswa ayivumelekanga ukuba ihlole la mabhaso okulamla. INkundla kwiNkqubo yokuThatyathwa kweMida ithathela ingqalelo ukuba ibhaso lokulamla alinakuphunyezwa, kuba alisekho.

U-Lisin wafaka isibheno ngokuchasene nesi sigwebo kwiNkundla yeZibheno ye-Amsterdam. INkundla ithathela ingqalelo ukuba ngokomgaqo-bhaso othile ophumeleleyo wokugweba akasayi kuthathela ingqalelo nakuphi na ukwamkelwa nokunyanzeliswa ngaphandle kokuba kuyimeko eyodwa. Kukho ityala elingaqhelekanga ukuba kukho izibonakaliso eziqinileyo zokuba isigwebo seenkundla zaseRussia sineziphene ezibalulekileyo, ukuze oku kungathathelwa ingqalelo njengelityala elifanelekileyo. Inkundla yezibheno yase-Amsterdam ayiqwalaseli eli tyala njengelodwa.

ILisin yafaka isibheno ngokuqinisekisa malunga nesi sigwebo. Ngokuka-Lisin inkundla ikwahlulekile ukubulela amandla e-discretionary anikezwe inkundla ngokusekwe kwinqaku V (1) (e) elivavanya ukuba umgwebo wentshabalalo welinye ilizwe unokuyigqiba inkqubo yokunyanzeliswa kwembasa yokulamla eNetherlands. IBhunga eliPhakamileyo lathelekisa ingxelo eyinyani yesiNgesi kunye nesiFrentshi kwisibhalo seNgqungquthela. Zombini ezi nguqulelo zibonakala ngathi zinenkcazo eyahlukileyo ngokubhekisele kumandla enkundla anikezwe inkundla. Inguqulelo yesiNgesi yenqaku V (1) (e) ichaza oku kulandelayo:

  1. Ukwamkelwa nokunyanzeliswa kwibhaso kunokwaliwa, ngokwesicelo seqela elichaselweyo, kuphela ukuba iqela elo linikezela kwabasemagunyeni abanobuchule apho ukwamkelwa nokunyanzeliswa kufuna khona, ubungqina bokuba:

(...)

  1. e) Ibhaso alikafikeleli ekubopheni amaqela, okanye libekelwe bucala okanye lanqunyanyiswa ligunya lelizwe apho, okanye phantsi komthetho, apho loo mbasa wenziwayo.

Inguqulelo yesiFrentshi yenqaku V (1) (e) ichaza oku kulandelayo:

"1. Ukuqwalaselwa kwakhona kwesigwebo ne-seront refusées, into efunekayo kuba liqela eliphikisanayo, inqanaba lesine elifunekayo lokuhlawulwa kwelona qondo liphambili:

(...)

  1. e) Isigwebo asiyiyo eyokunyanzelwa kokunyanzeliswa kwamagunya okuchithwa kwamaqela okanye ukurhoxiswa okanye ukumiswa emsebenzini ngenxa yokuhlawulwa kwemali ehlawulwayo, okanye emva koko, isigwebo esenziwe. ”

Amandla okhetho lwenguqulo yesiNgesi ('isenokwaliwa') ibonakala ibanzi kunenguqulo yesiFrentshi ('ne seront refusées que si'). IBhunga eliPhakamileyo lifumene ukutolikwa okuninzi okwahlukileyo kwezinye izixhobo malunga nokusetyenziswa ngokuchanekileyo kwendibano.

IBhunga eliPhakamileyo lizama ukucacisa ukutolika okwahlukileyo ngokongeza ezalo iinkcazo. Oku kuthetha ukuba amandla okhetho anokusetyenziswa kuphela xa kukho umhlaba wokwala ngokweNgqungquthela. Kule meko yayimalunga nesizathu sokwala ukubhekisa 'ekutshatyalalisweni kwebhaso lokulamla'. Kuxhomekeke eLisin ukungqina ngokusekwe kwiinyani nakwiimeko ukuba umhlaba wokwala awunasihlahla.

IBhunga eliPhakamileyo labelana ngokupheleleyo ngombono weNkundla yeziBheno. Inokubakho kuphela imeko ekhethekileyo ngokubhekisele kwiNkundla ePhakamileyo xa kutshatyalaliswa imbasa yomlamli isekwe kwizizathu ezingahambelaniyo nokwala kwenqaku V (1). Nangona inkundla yaseDatshi inikwe igunya lokukhetha kwimeko yokuqondwa nokunyanzeliswa, ayisasebenzi kwisigwebo sentshabalalo kweli tyala. Isichaso esenziwe ngu-Lisin asinathuba lokuphumelela.

Esi sigwebo seBhunga eliPhakamileyo sinika ukucaciswa okucacileyo apho inqaku V (1) lendibano yaseNew York kufuneka litolikwe khona kwimeko yamandla okhethe anikezwe inkundla ngexesha lokuvunywa nokunyanzelwa kwesigwebo sentshabalalo. Oku kuthetha, ngokufutshane, ukuba kuphela kwiimeko ezithile intshabalalo yomgwebo inokugqitha.

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