Isenzo sokudliwayo kwemali saseDatshi kunye nesenzo sokuthintela ukuxhasana ngezemali

Ngomhla wokuqala ku-Agasti ka-2018, umthetho wase-Datshi wokuthintela imali kunye nokhuseleko lokuxhasa ngezimali ubugebenga (amaDatshi: Wwft) sele esebenze iminyaka elishumi. Eyona njongo iphambili ye-Wwft ukugcina inkqubo yezemali icocekile; umthetho ujolise ekuthinteleni inkqubo yezemali ukuba isetyenziselwe iinjongo zolwaphulo-mthetho lokuxhaphaza imali kunye nemali yokugrogrisa. Ukuphathwa kwemali kuthetha ukuba izinto ezifunyenwe ngokungekho mthethweni zenziwe ngokusemthethweni ukuze kucinywe imvelaphi engekho mthethweni. Ukuxhaswa ngezimali kobugrogrisi kwenzeka xa imali esetyenziswayo isetyenziselwa ukwenza imisebenzi yobugrogrisi. Ngokwe-Wwft, imibutho inyanzelekile ukuba inike ingxelo ngokungaqhelekanga. Ezi ngxelo zinegalelo ekufumaneni nasekutshutshisweni kobusela bemali kunye nokuxhotyiswa ngezimali kwabagrogrisi. I-Wwft inegalelo elihle kwimibutho esebenzayo e-Netherlands. Imibutho esebenzayo kufuneka ithathe amanyathelo ukuze kuthintelwe ukuxhaphaza imali kunye nokuxhasa ngezemali ubugrogrisi ukuba kungenzeki. Eli nqaku liza kuxoxa ukuba ngawaphi amaziko awela kwinqanaba leWwft, ezi zibophelelo zala maziko ngokwe-Wwft kwaye zithini iziphumo xa amaziko engahambelani ne-Wwft.

Isenzo sokudliwayo kwemali saseDatshi kunye nesenzo sokuthintela ukuxhasana ngezemali

1. Amaziko awela kwinqanaba le-Wwft

Amaziko athile anyanzelekile ukuba athobele izibonelelo ezivela kwi-Wwft. Ukwenzela ukuvavanya ukuba ngaba iziko liseseliphantsi kwe-Wwft, uhlobo lweziko kunye nemisebenzi eyenziwa liziko iyahlolwa. Iziko eliphantsi kwe-Wwft linokucelwa ukuba lenze abathengi ngenkuthalo okanye banike ingxelo ngentengiselwano. La maziko alandelayo anokuthotyelwa i-Wwft:

  • abathengisi beempahla;
  • abameli bokuthenga kunye nokuthengiswa kweempahla;
  • abavavanyi bezindlu nomhlaba;
  • iiarhente zezindlu kunye nabathengisi bezindlu nomhlaba;
  • abaqhubi be-pawnshop kunye nababoneleli be-domicile;
  • amaziko emali;
  • iingcali ezizimeleyo.[1]

Abathengisi beempahla

Abathengisi beempahla banyanzelekile ukuba baqhube ngenkuthalo yabathengi xa ixabiso lezinto eziza kuthengiswa zixabisa kwi- € 15,000 okanye nangaphezulu kwaye le ntlawulo yenziwa ngemali. Ayinamsebenzi nokuba intlawulo yenzeka ngokwamagama okanye ngaxeshanye. Xa intlawulo yemali eyi- € 25,000 okanye nangaphezulu yenzeka xa kuthengiswa iimpahla ezithile, ezinjengeenqanawa, izithuthi kunye nobucwebe, umthengisi kufuneka axele ingxelo ngentengiselwano. Xa intlawulo ingenziwa ngemali, akukho sibophelelo seWwft. Nangona kunjalo, idiphozithi eyimali kwiakhawunti yebhanki yomthengisi ibonwa njengentlawulo ezinkozo.

Abalawuli ekuthengweni nasekuthengiseni iimpahla

Ukuba uyalawula xa kuthengwa okanye kuthengiswa iimpahla ezithile, uxhomekeke kwi-Wwft kwaye unoxanduva lokuqhuba ngenkuthalo yabathengi. Oku kubandakanya ukuthengisa kunye nokuthengwa kwezithuthi, iinqanawa, ubucwebe, izinto zobugcisa kunye nezinto zakudala. Ayinamsebenzi ukuba amaxabiso aphezulu ahlawulwe njani nokuba ixabiso lihlawulwe ngekheshi. Xa intengiselwano ngentlawulo yemali engama- 25,000 okanye ngaphezulu yenzekile, lo ntengiselwano kufuneka ixelwe.

Abavavanyi bezindlu kunye nomhlaba

Xa i-appraiser ivavanya ipropathi engashukumiyo kwaye ifumane iinyani ezingaqhelekanga kunye neemeko ezinokuchaphazela ukuxhaphaza imali okanye imali yokugrogrisa, oku kufuneka kuthengiswe. Nangona kunjalo, ama-appraisers akanyanzelekanga ukuba enze ukukhuthala komthengi.

Iiarhente zeearhente zeearhente kunye nabathengisi bezindlu nomhlaba

Abantu abalamlayo ekuthengweni nasekuthengiseni impahla engashukumiyo baphantsi kwe-Wwft kwaye kufuneka baziphathe ngokuzinikela kwabaxhamli beenkonzo nganye. Isibophelelo sokwenza iklayenti ngokukhutheleyo siyasebenza ngokubhekisele kumlingane womxhasi. Ukuba kukho ukukrokrela ukuba intengiselwano isenokubandakanya ukungcola imali okanye ukuxhasa ngezemali ubugrogrisi, oku kufuneka kuchazwe. Oku kukwasebenza nakwiitransekshini apho isixa- mali se- € 15,000 okanye ngaphezulu sifunyenwe ezinkozo. Ayinamsebenzi nokuba eli lixa learhente yearhente yezezindlu okanye umntu wesithathu.

Abaqhubi bePawnshop kunye nabanikezeli beendawo zokuhlala

Abasebenzi bePawnshop abanikezela ngeprofessional okanye izithembiso zeshishini kufuneka benze ukukhuthala komthengi ngamnye ngenxa yentengiselwano nganye. Ukuba intengiselwano ingaqhelekanga, lo msebenzi kufuneka uxelwe. Oku kukwasebenza nakuzo zonke izinto ezitshintshwayo nezixabisa isi- € 25,000 okanye ngaphezulu. Ababoneleli beencwadi abasebenza iidilesi ezenza idilesi okanye idilesi yeposi ukuba ifumaneke kumntu wesithathu kwishishini okanye ngokobungcali, kufuneka baqhube ngokukhuthala komthengi ngamnye. Ukuba kukrokreleka ukuba kunokubakho imali okanye imali yokugrogrisa ebandakanyeka ekunikezeleni i-domain, ukuthengiselana kufuneka kuxelwe.

Amaziko emali

Amaziko emali abandakanya iibhanki, ii-ofisi zokutshintshiselana, ii-kasinos, ii-ofisi zetrasti, amaziko otyalomali kunye neinshurensi. La maziko makasoloko eqhuba ngenkuthalo yabathengi kwaye kufuneka axele ukuthengiselana ngokungaqhelekanga. Nangona kunjalo, imigaqo eyahlukeneyo inokusebenza kwiibhanki.

Iingcali ezizimeleyo

Udidi lweengcali ezizimeleyo lubandakanya aba bantu balandelayo: i-notarier, amagqwetha, abagcini zincwadi, abacebisi zerhafu kunye neeofisi zolawulo. La maqela anobungcali kufuneka enze inkuthalo efanelekileyo kwaye anike ingxelo ngentengiselwano engaqhelekanga.

Amaziko okanye iingcali ezenza imisebenzi ngokuzimeleyo ngokwesiseko esifanelekileyo, esihambelana nemisebenzi eyenziwa ngamaziko akhankanywe apha ngasentla, nazo zingaphantsi kweWwft. Oku kubandakanya imisebenzi elandelayo:

  • ukucebisa iinkampani malunga nolwakhiwo lwenkunzi, ubuchule beshishini kunye nemisebenzi enxulumene noko;
  • ukubonisana nokubonelela ngeenkonzo kwicandelo lokudityaniswa kunye nokufunyanwa kweenkampani;
  • ukusekwa okanye ukulawulwa kweenkampani okanye izinto zomthetho;
  • ukuthenga okanye ukuthengisa iinkampani, izinto zomthetho okanye izabelo kwiinkampani;
  • ukufunyanwa ngokupheleleyo okanye inxenye kweenkampani okanye izinto zomthetho;
  • imisebenzi enxulumene nerhafu.

Ukuze ukwazi ukufumanisa ukuba ngaba iziko liseseliphantsi kwe-Wwft, kubalulekile ukugcina imisebenzi eyenziwa liziko. Ukuba iziko libonelela ngolwazi kuphela, iziko ngokwemigaqo alikho phantsi kwe-Wwft. Ukuba iziko libonelela ngeengcebiso kubaxumi, iziko linokuthotyelwa yi-Wwft. Nangona kunjalo, kukho umgca omncinci phakathi kokubonelela ngolwazi kunye nokubonelela ngengcebiso. Kananjalo, iklayenti enyanzelekileyo yokuthatha inxaxheba kufuneka yenzeke ngaphambi kokuba iziko lingene kwimvumelwano yeshishini nomthengi. Xa iziko ekuqaleni licinga ukuba ulwazi kuphela ekufuneka lunikwe umthengi, kodwa kamva kubonakale ngathi kunikiwe iingcebiso okanye kufuneka zinikwe ngokunjalo, imbophelelo yokuqhuba iklayenti yangaphambili ngenxa yokukhuthala ayifezekanga. Kungumngcipheko omkhulu ukwahlula imisebenzi yeziko kwizinto ezenziwa phantsi kwe-Wwft kunye nemisebenzi engeyiyo i-Wwft, kuba umda phakathi kwale misebenzi ungacacanga. Ukongeza, inokuba yimeko yokuba imisebenzi eyahlukeneyo ayithobelanga i-Wwft, kodwa ukuba le misebenzi ibandakanya uxanduva lwe-Wwft xa zidibene kunye. Kubalulekile ke ngoko ukugqiba kwangethuba ukuba ngaba iziko lakho laliphantsi kweWwft.

Ngaphantsi kwezinye iimeko, iziko elinokuthi liwele phantsi komgaqo we-Dutch Trust Office Supervision Act (Wtt) endaweni yeWwft. I-Wtt iqulethe iimfuno ezingqongqo ngokubhekisele kubathengi abakhutheleyo kunye namaziko aphantsi kwe-Wtt edinga imvume ukuze enze imisebenzi yawo. Ngokwe-Wtt, amaziko abonelela nge-domicile kwaye aqhuba imisebenzi eyongezelelweyo ngokunjalo, aphantsi kwe-Wtt. Le misebenzi yongezelelweyo ibandakanya ukubonelela ngengcebiso kwezomthetho, ukukhathalela ukubhengezwa kwerhafu, ukwenziwa kwemisebenzi malunga nokuyilwa, ukuvavanywa nokubekwa esweni kweeakhawunti zonyaka okanye ukugcina ulawulo okanye ukufumana umlawuli wequmrhu okanye lomthetho. Ngokwenziwayo, ukubonelela nge-domicile kunye nokwenza imisebenzi eyongezelelweyo ihlala ilawulwa ngamaziko amabini ahlukeneyo, ukuqinisekisa ukuba la maziko awawi ngaphakathi kwinqanaba le-Wtt. Nangona kunjalo, oku akusayi kuphinda kwenzeke xa i-Wtt elungisiweyo iza kuqala ukusebenza. Emva kokufika kolu hlenga-hlengiso lowiso-mthetho, amaziko anikezela ubungqina bommandla kunye nokuqhutywa kwemisebenzi eyongezelelweyo phakathi kwamaziko amabini kuya kuba phantsi kwe-Wtt. Oku kuchaphazela amaziko enza imisebenzi eyongezelekileyo ngokwawo, kodwa athumele abathengi kwelinye iziko ukuze babonelele okanye bafumane indawo yokuhlala (okanye ngokulandelelana) kunye namaziko asebenza njengabameli ngokuzisa umthengi ekunxibelelaneni namaqela ahlukeneyo anokuthi abonelele nge-domicile kwaye akwazi ukuqhuba imisebenzi eyongezelelweyo.[2] Kubalulekile ukuba amaziko abenembono eyiyo ngemisebenzi yawo, ukuze kuqinisekiswe ukuba ngowuphi umthetho osebenza kuwo.

2. Umthengi okhutheleyo

Ngokwe-Wwft, iziko eliphantsi kwe-Wwft kufuneka liqhube ngenkuthalo yabathengi. Ukukhuthala komthengi kufuneka kwenziwe ngaphambi kokuba iziko lingene kwisivumelwano seshishini kunye nomthengi ngaphambi kokuba iinkonzo zinikezelwe. Inkuthalo yabathengi ibandakanyeka, phakathi kwezinye izinto, ukuba iziko kufuneka licele ulwazi lwabathengi bayo, kufuneka lihlole olu lwazi, lirekhode kwaye ligcine iminyaka emihlanu.

Ukukhuthala komthengi ngenxa yeWwft kujolise kumngcipheko. Oku kuthetha ukuba iziko kufuneka lithathe umngcipheko malunga nohlobo nobungakanani benkampani yalo kunye nemingcipheko ngokubhekisele kubudlelwane beshishini elithile okanye ekuthengiseni. Ubungakanani bokukhuthala okumiselweyo kufuneka buhambisane nale mingcipheko.[3] I-Wwft ibandakanya amanqanaba amathathu okukhuthala komthengi: esemgangathweni, eyenziwe lula kwaye iphuculwe. Ngokusekwe emngciphekweni, iziko lemfundo kufuneka ligqibe ukuba leliphi na iklayenti elikhankanyiweyo elingentla kufuneka lenziwe. Ukongeza kutoliko olusekwe emngciphekweni wokukhuthala komthengi ekufuneka wenziwe kwiimeko eziqhelekileyo, uvavanyo lomngcipheko lungangqina ukuba sisizathu sokwenza iklayenti elilula okanye elongezekileyo ngenxa yokukhuthala. Xa uvavanya ubungozi, ezi ngongoma zilandelayo kufuneka zithathelwe ingqalelo: abathengi, amazwe kunye nezizathu zeendawo apho iziko lisebenza khona kunye neemveliso kunye neenkonzo ezenziweyo.[4]

I-Wwft ayichazi ukuba manyathelo mani ekufuneka athatyathwe ukuze kulungelwe abathengi ngenkuthalo kunye novakalelo lomngcipheko wentengiselwano. Nangona kunjalo, kubalulekile ukuba amaziko aseke iinkqubo ezisekela umngcipheko ekuqinisekiseni ukuba makwenziwe ngokuzimisela kangakanani umthengi. Umzekelo, la manyathelo alandelayo anokuphunyezwa: ukuseka umngcipheko weengozi, ukuseka umgaqo-nkqubo womngcipheko okanye iprofayile, ukufakela iinkqubo zokwamkelwa kwabaxumi, ukuthatha amanyathelo olawulo lwangaphakathi okanye ukudityaniswa kwala manyathelo. Ukongeza, kuyacetyiswa ukuba kwenziwe ulawulo lwefayile nokugcina irekhodi yazo zonke izinto ezenziweyo kunye novavanyo lomngcipheko oluhambelanayo. Igunya elinoxanduva ngokubhekisele kwi-Wwft, iCandelo lezobuntlola ngezeziMali (i-FIU), linokucela iziko ukuba libonelele ngokuchonga kwalo kunye nokuvavanya umngcipheko ngokubhekisele kurhwaphilizo lwemali kunye nokuxhotyiswa ngezimali kwabagrogrisi. Iziko linyanzelekile ukuba lihambisane nesi sicelo.[5] I-Wwft ikwaqulathe izikhombisi zibonisa ukuba kufuneka ikhuthala liqhubeke kangakanani na.

2.1 Umthengi ofanelekileyo ngenxa yokukhuthala

Ngokwesiqhelo, amaziko makaqhube umthengi ofanelekileyo ngenxa yokukhuthala. Oku kukhuthala okubangelwa zezi zinto zilandelayo:

  • ukumisela, ukuqinisekisa kunye nokurekhoda isazisi somthengi;
  • ukumiswa, ukuqinisekiswa kunye nokurekhodwa kwesazisi soMnini sibonelelo sokugqibela (i-UBO);
  • ukumisela nokurekhoda injongo kunye nohlobo lwesabelo okanye sentengiselwano.

Isazisi somthengi

Ukwazi ukuba iinkonzo zinikezelwe kubani, ukuzazisa komthengi kufuneka kugqitywe ngaphambi kokuba iziko liqale ukubonelela ngeenkonzo. Ukuchonga umthengi, umxhasi kufuneka ebuzwe ngeenkcukacha zakhe. Emva koko, ukuzazisa komthengi kufuneka kuqinisekiswe. Ngomntu wendalo, oku kuqinisekisa kungenziwa ngokucela incwadi yokundwendwela yasekuqaleni, ilayisensi yokuqhuba okanye ikhadi lesazisi. Abathengi abangamagqwetha asemthethweni kufuneka bacelwe ukuba banike iirisithi kwirejista yorhwebo okanye amanye amaxwebhu athembekileyo okanye idatha eqhelekileyo kwisiko lokugcwala. Olu lwazi kufuneka lugcinwe liziko iminyaka emihlanu.

Isazisi se UBO

Ukuba umxhasi ngumntu osemthethweni, intsebenziswano, isiseko okanye intembeko, i-UBO kufuneka ichongwe kwaye iqinisekiswe. I-UBO yomntu osemthethweni ngumntu wendalo:

  • unomdla ongaphezulu kwe-25% kwi-capital yomthengi; okanye
  • Unokusebenzisa i-25% okanye ngaphezulu yezabelo okanye amalungelo okuvota kwintlanganiso kawonke wonke yezabelo; okanye
  • unokusebenzisa ulawulo olululo kumthengi; okanye
  • ungumxhamli we-25% okanye ngaphezulu ye-asethi yesiseko okanye yetrasti; okanye
  • Unolawulo olukhethekileyo ngaphezulu kwe-25% okanye ngaphezulu yeempahla zabathengi.

I-UBO yobambiswano ngumntu wendalo othi, ekuphelisweni kwentsebenziswano, anelungelo lesabelo kwi-25% okanye ngaphezulu okanye anelungelo lokufumana isabelo kwi-25% okanye ngaphezulu. Ngentembeko, isichazi ((ad)) kunye netrasti kufuneka ichongwe.

Xa ukuqinisekiswa kwe-UBO kugqityiwe, le nto kufuneka iqinisekiswe. Iziko kufuneka livavanye umngcipheko malunga nokuxhaphaza imali kunye nokuxhotyiswa ngezimali kwabagrogrisi; ukuqinisekiswa kwe-UBO kuya kufuneka kwenzeke ngokwale mingcipheko. Oku kubizwa ngokuba kukuqinisekiswa okusekwe emngciphekweni. Olona hlobo luqinisekileyo lokuqinisekiswa kukumiselwa kwamaxwebhu asisiseko, njengezenzo, iimvumelwano nobhaliso kwiirejista zoluntu okanye eminye imithombo ethembekileyo, ukuba i-UBO ekuthethwa ngayo ivunyelwe ngokwenene nge-25% okanye ngaphezulu. Olu lwazi lunokucelwa xa kukho umngcipheko omkhulu ngokubhekisele ekutsaleni imali nakwimali yokugrogrisa. Xa kukho umngcipheko ophantsi, iziko linokuthi umthengi asayine isiqinisekiso se-UBO. Ngokutyikitya esi sibhengezo, umxhasi uqinisekisa ukuchaneka kwesazisi kwi-UBO.

Injongo kunye nohlobo lwesabelo okanye intengiselwano

Amaziko kufuneka enze uphando malunga nemvelaphi kunye nenjongo yobudlelwane beshishini okanye ukuthengiselana okwenzelwe oko. Oku kufanele kuthintele iinkonzo zamaziko ekubeni asetyenziselwe ukuphatha imali okanye ukuxhasa ngezemali ubugrogrisi. Uphando malunga nohlobo lweso sabelo okanye intengiselwano kufuneka lusekwe emngciphekweni.[6] Xa uhlobo lwesabelo okanye ukuhanjiswa kugqityiwe, oku kuya kurekhodwa kwirejista.

2.2 Umthengi olungiselelwe ngokuchanekileyo

Kuyenzeka ukuba iziko lihambelane ne-Wwft ngokuqhuba ngokuzinikela kwabaxhamli beenkonzo. Njengoko sele kuxoxiwe, ubungakanani bokuqhuba ngenkuthalo kwabaxhamli buya kumiselwa ngesiseko sohlalutyo lomngcipheko. Ukuba olu hlalutyo lubonisa ukuba umngcipheko wokuxhaphaza imali kunye nokuxhotyiswa ngezimali kwabanqolobi uphantsi, umthengi olula ngenxa yokuqhutywa ngenkuthalo kunokwenziwa. Ngokuka-Wwft, ukukhuthala okulula kwabaxhamli beenkonzo kwenzeka nakweyiphi na imeko eyoneleyo ukuba umthengi yibhanki, inshurensi yobomi okanye elinye iziko lezemali, inkampani edwelisiweyo okanye iziko likarhulumente le-EU. Kwiimeko ezinjalo, kuphela kukuchazwa komthengi kunye nenjongo kunye nohlobo lwentengiselwano ekufuneka imiselwe kwaye irekhodwe ngendlela echazwe kwi-2.1. Ukuqinisekiswa komthengi kunye nokuchongwa kunye nokungqinisisa kwe-UBO akukho mfuneko kule meko.

2.3 Umxhasi okhuthazayo ngenxa yokukhuthala

Kusenokuba yimeko ekuya kufuneka ukuba kuqhutyekwe nokukhuthala komthengi. Le yimeko apho umngcipheko wokuxhaphaza imali kunye nenkxaso-mali yabanqolobi iphezulu. Ngokwe-Wwft, ukukhuthala komthengi ofanelekileyo kufuneka kwenziwe kwezi meko zilandelayo:

  • kwangaphambili, kukho ukukrokrela komngcipheko okhulayo wokuxhaphaza imali okanye imali yokugrogrisa;
  • Umxhasi akakho ngokochongwa emzimbeni;
  • Umxhasi okanye i-UBO ngumntu oveza ezopolitiko.

Ukurhanelwa komngcipheko okhulayo wokuxhaphaza imali okanye imali yokugrogrisa

Xa uhlalutyo lomngcipheko lubonisa ukuba kukho umngcipheko omkhulu wokuxhaphaza imali kunye nokuxhasa ngezimali ubugrogrisi, ukhuthazo olwenziweyo lwabathengi kufuneka lwenziwe. Ukusebenza ngenkuthalo kwabathengi okubonakalayo kunokuqhutywa ngokucela iSatifikethi sokuziphatha okuhle kumthengi, ngokuqhubeka kuphanda abasemagunyeni kunye nemisebenzi yebhodi yabalawuli kunye ne-proxies okanye ngokukhangela imvelaphi kunye nendawo ekuyiwa kuyo imali, kubandakanya nokucela i-bhanki. iingxelo. Amanyathelo ekufuneka athathwe axhomekeke kwimeko.

Umxhasi awikho ngokwasemzimbeni ekuchongeni

Ukuba umxhasi akakho emzimbeni wokuchongwa, oku kubeka emngciphekweni ophezulu wokuxhaphaza imali kunye nokuxhotyiswa ngezemali kwabagrogrisi. Kwimeko enjalo, kufuneka kuthathwe amanyathelo ukubuyisela le ngozi. I-Wwft ibonakalisa ukuba ngawaphi amaziko okhetho anokuthi abuyisele imbuyekezo:

  • kuchonga umthengi ngesiseko samaxwebhu ongezelelweyo, idatha okanye ulwazi (umzekelo, ikopi engekhoyo)
  • ukuvavanya ubunyani bamaxwebhu angenisiweyo;
  • Ukuqinisekisa ukuba intlawulo yokuqala enxulumene nobudlelwane beshishini okanye yentengiselwano yenziwa egameni okanye ngeendleko zeakhawunti yomthengi ngebhanki eneofisi ebhalisiweyo kwiLungu leLungu okanye ngebhanki ekwimo ekhethiweyo ebambe ilayisensi yokuqhuba ishishini kweli lizwe.

Ukuba intlawulo ichongiwe yenziwe, sithetha ngochazo olwenziweyo. Oku kuthetha ukuba iziko linokusebenzisa idatha evela kubathengi abasebenzayo kwangaphambili. Ukuchongwa okuvunyiweyo kuyavunyelwa kuba ibhanki apho kuhlawulwa khona isazisi likwindawo yeziko eliphantsi kwe-Wwft okanye kweliso elinye kwelinye iLizwe. Ngokomgaqo, umxhasi sele echongwe yibhanki xa esenza le ntlawulo yokuchonga.

Umthengi okanye i-UBO ngumntu ocacileyo kwezopolitiko

Abantu abachazayo kwezopolitiko (PEP's) ngabantu abaphetheyo kwezopolitiko eNetherlands okanye phesheya, okanye abakhe babambela kwisithuba esingangonyaka omnye, kwaye

  • hlala kwelinye ilizwe (nokuba bahlala okanye bengabemi bobuDatshi) okanye

OR

  • uhlala eNetherlands kodwa awunabo ubuzwe baseDatshi.

Nokuba umntu yi-PEP kufuneka enze uphando kumthengi nakuyo nayiphi na i-UBO yomthengi. Aba bantu balandelayo nakweyiphi na imeko ye-PEP:

  • iintloko zikarhulumente, iintloko zikarhulumente, abaphathiswa nababhali boorhulumente;
  • iipalamente;
  • amalungu amagunya aphezulu ezomthetho;
  • amalungu eofisi zokuphicotha iincwadi kunye neebhodi zolawulo zebhanki eziphambili;
  • oonozakuzaku, ii-chargé d'affaires kunye namagosa aphezulu omkhosi;
  • amalungu amabhunga olawulo, bobabini abaphetheyo nabaphathi;
  • amalungu eenkampani zikarhulumente;
  • amalungu osapho akufutshane okanye abasondeleyo baba bantu bangasentla.[7]

Xa i-PEP ibandakanyeka, iziko kufuneka liqokelele kwaye liqinisekise idatha engaphezulu ukunciphisa ngokufanelekileyo nokulawula umngcipheko omkhulu wokuxhaphaza imali kunye nokuxhotyiswa ngezemali kwabagrogrisi.[8]

3. Ukuxela ukuthengiselana ngokungaqhelekanga

Xa umthengi egqityiwe ukukhuthala, iziko lemfundo kufuneka liqwalasele ukuba le ntengiselwano icetywayo ayiqhelekanga. Ukuba kunjalo, kunokubakho imali okanye imali yokugrogrisa ebandakanyekayo, intengiselwano kufuneka ixelwe.

Ukuba iklayenti ikukhuthalele ukubonelela ngedatha emiselwe ngumthetho okanye kukho iimpawu zokuzibandakanya ekuhlawulweni kwemali okanye ekuxhaseni ngezemali ubugrogrisi, intengiselwano kufuneka ixelwe kwi-FIU. Ngokwe-Wwft. Abasemagunyeni baseDatshi bamisele isibonakaliso esisezantsi kunye neenjongo kwisiseko samaziko anokugqiba ukuba kukho ukuthengiselana okungaqhelekanga. Ukuba enye yezikhombisi isemxholweni, kucingelwa ukuba intengiselwano ayiqhelekanga. Olu tshintshiselwano kufuneka luchazwe kwi-FIU ngokukhawuleza. Kusekwe ezi zikhombisi zilandelayo:

Iimpawu ezibonakalayo

  1. Intengiselwano apho iziko linesizathu sokucinga ukuba linokuthanani nokuthathwa kwemali okanye imali yokugrogrisa. Amazwe ahlukeneyo emngcipheko athe achongwa nguMsebenzi oSebenza ngeMali.

Izalathi zeenjongo

  1. Unaniselwano oluxelwe emapoliseni okanye kwiNkonzo yoTshutshiso loLuntu ngokunxulumene nokuthathwa kwemali okanye imali yokugrogrisa kufuneka lubikwe kwi-FIU; emva kwayo yonke loo nto, kukho ingcinga yokuba olu tshintshiselwano lusenokuba lunxulumene nokuxhaphaza imali kunye nokuxhasa ngemali ubugrogrisi.
  2. Intengiselwano eyenziwe okanye yokunceda umntu (osemthethweni) ohlala okanye onedilesi ebhalisiweyo kwilizwe elityunjwe ngummiselo womphathiswa njengombuso onesiphene sobuchule ekuthinteleni ukungcola kwemali kunye nokuxhotyiswa ngezimali kobugrogrisi.
  3. Intengiselwano apho kuthengiswa enye okanye uninzi lwezithuthi, iinqanawa, izinto zobugcisa okanye ubucwebe ngexabiso lentlawulo (eliyinxalenye) yentlawulo yemali, apho isixa-mali ekufuneka sihlawulwe sisisixa semali ukuya kuthi ga kwi-25,000, XNUMX XNUMX okanye ngaphezulu.
  4. Unaniselwano ngesixa se- € 15,000 okanye ngaphezulu, apho kutshintshiselana ngemali yenzeka kwenye imali okanye ukusuka kwiincinci ukuya kumahlelo amakhulu.
  5. Idipozithi eyimali eyi- $ 15,000 okanye ngaphezulu eyenzela ikhadi letyala okanye isixhobo sentlawulo esele sihlawulwe.
  6. Ukusetyenziswa kwekhadi letyala okanye isixhobo sokuhlawula sangaphambi kokuhlawulwa ngokunxulumene notshintshiselwano ngesixa se- $ 15,000 okanye nangaphezulu.
  7. Intengiselwano yesixa esimalunga ne-15,000, XNUMX yeedola, okanye ngaphezulu, ohlawulelwa okanye kwiziko ngemali ezinko, ngetshekhi yokuba ngumphathi, ngesixhobo esihlawulelwe kwangaphambili okanye ngeendlela ezifanayo zokuhlawula.
  8. Intengiselwano apho iimpahla okanye iimpahla ezininzi ziziswa phantsi kolawulo lwe-pawnshop, ngesixa semali esifunyenwe yi-pawnshop ekutshintshisiseni ukuya kuthi ga kwi-25,000, XNUMX okanye ngaphezulu.
  9. Intengiselwano yesixa esimalunga ne-15,000, XNUMX yeedola, okanye ngaphezulu, ohlawulelwa okanye kwiziko ngemali ezinko, ngetsheki, ngesixhobo esihlawulelwe kwangaphambili okanye ngemali yelinye ilizwe.
  10. Ukugcina imali, ii-banknotes okanye ezinye izinto zexabiso elingumyinge we- 15,000 okanye ngaphezulu.
  11. Intengiselwano yentlawulo ye-giro ngesixa se- € 15,000 okanye ngaphezulu.
  12. Ukutshintshelwa kwemali isixa esimalunga ne-2,000, XNUMX, okanye ngaphezulu, ngaphandle kokuba kuchaphazela imali evela kwelinye iziko elishiya indawo yokuhlawulelwa kwelinye iziko elixhomekeke kuxanduva lokuxela ukuthengiselana ngokungaqhelekanga, okuvela kwi-Wwft.[9]

Ayizizo zonke izikhombisi ezisebenza kuwo onke amaziko. Kuxhomekeka kuhlobo lweziko elibonakalisa izalathiso kwiziko elo. Xa olunye lwentengiselwano njengoko luchaziwe apha ngasentla lusenzeka kwiziko elithile, oku kuthathwa njengento engaqhelekanga yokuthenga Olu lwento kufuneka ixelwe kwi-FIU. I-FIU irejista ingxelo njengengxelo yokungaqhelekanga yokwenziwa. I-FIU emva koko ivavanya ukuba ngaba ukuthengiselana okungaqhelekanga kuyakrokrela kwaye kufuneka kuphandwe kugunyaziwe wophando lolwaphulo-mthetho okanye inkonzo yezokhuseleko.

4. Uqinisekiso

Ukuba iziko lixela ukuthengiselana ngokungaqhelekanga kwi-FIU, le ngxelo ibandakanya ukukhululwa. Ngokuka-Wwft, idatha okanye ulwazi olunikezwe i-FIU ngokunyaniseka kwimeko yengxelo, alunakusebenza njengesiseko sophando okanye ukutshutshisa iziko elinike ingxelo malunga nokukrokrelwa ukuphathwa kwemali. okanye imali yokugrogrisa yeli ziko. Ngapha koko, le datha ayinakusebenza njengommangalelwano. Oku kukwasebenza kwidatha ebonelelwe kwi-FIU liziko, ngengqiqo yokuba oku kuya kubandakanya ukuthotyelwa kwesibophelelo sokunikwa kwengxelo evela kwi-Wwft. Oku kuthetha ukuba ulwazi olunikezwe liziko kwi-FIU, kwimeko yengxelo yento eyenzekileyo engaqhelekanga, alinakusetyenziswa ngokuchasene neziko kuphando lolwaphulo-mthetho malunga nokuxhotyiswa kwemali okanye ngezemali. Oku kuhlawulwa kukwasebenza kubantu abasebenzela iziko elinikezele ngeenkcukacha kunye neenkcukacha kwi-FIU. Ngokuxela ukuthengiselana ngokungaqhelekanga kukholo olufanelekileyo, unemetyala.

Ngapha koko, iziko elinike ingxelo yentengiselwano engaqhelekanga okanye elinikezele ngolwazi olongezelelekileyo ngesiseko seWwft alisoxanduva nakulo nawuphi na umonakalo owenzeke ngenxa yeso sisithathu. Oku kuthetha ukuba iziko alinakubekwa tyala ngomonakalo ophethwe ngumxhasi ngenxa yengxelo yentengiselwano engaqhelekanga. Ke ngoko, ngokuthobela uxanduva lokuxela into eyenzeka ngokungaqhelekanga, indemnification iyanikwa amaziko. Oku kuthunyelwa eluntwini kukwasebenza nakubantu abasebenzela iziko elixeliweyo ngentengiselwano engaqhelekanga okanye abanike ulwazi kwi-FIU.

5. Ezinye iimbophelelo ezivela kwi-Wwft

Ukongeza kwisibophelelo sokuqhuba ngenkuthalo kwabathengi kunye nokunika ingxelo ngokutshintshiselana okungaqhelekanga kwi-FIU, iWwft ikwangenisa uxanduva lokugcina iimfihlo kunye noxanduva loqeqesho kumaziko.

Uxanduva lokugcina imfihlo

Uxanduva lokugcina imfihlo lubandakanya ukuba iziko alinokwazisa nabani na ngengxelo kwi-FIU nangokrokrelo lokuba ukubolekisa ngemali okanye imali yokugrogrisa ibandakanyeka kuthengiselwano. Iziko livumelekile ukwazisa umthengi malunga noku. Isizathu soku kukuba i-FIU izakusungula uphando kuthengiselwano olungaqhelekanga. Uxanduva lokugcina imfihlo lufakiwe ukunqanda amaqela aphandwayo ukuba anikwe ithuba, umzekelo, lokulahla ubungqina.

Uqeqesho loqeqesho

Ngokwe-Wwft, amaziko anoxanduva loqeqesho. Olu xanduva loqeqesho lubandakanya ukuba abasebenzi beziko kufuneka babenolwazi malunga namalungiselelo eWwft, ngenxa yokuba oku kufanelekile ekwenzeni imisebenzi yabo. Abasebenzi kufuneka babe nakho ukwenza ngokufanelekileyo ukukhuthala komthengi kunye nokuqaphela intengiselwano engaqhelekanga. Uqeqesho lwamaxesha ngamaxesha kufuneka lulandelwe ukuze kufezekiswe oku.

6. Iziphumo zokungahambelani neWwft

Izibophelelo ezahlukeneyo ezivela kwi-Wwft: ukuqhuba inkuthalo efanelekileyo, ukunika ingxelo ngezinto ezingaqhelekanga, uxanduva lokugcina iimfihlo kunye noxanduva loqeqesho. Idatha eyahlukeneyo nayo kufuneka irekhodwe kwaye igcinwe kwaye iziko kufuneka lithathe amanyathelo ukunciphisa umngcipheko wokuxhaphaza imali kunye nokuxhotyiswa ngezemali kwabagrogrisi.

Ukuba iziko alithobeli izibophelelo ezidweliswe apha ngasentla, kuya kuthathwa amanyathelo. Kuxhomekeka kuhlobo lweziko, ukubekwa esweni kokuthobela i-Wwft kuqhutywa ngabaphathi beRhafu / i-Bureau Supervision Wwft, i-Dutch Central Bank, iGunya leDatshi leeMarike zeMali, iOfisi yokuLawulwa kwezeMali okanye iDutch Bar Association. Aba bajikelezi baqhuba uphando lokujonga ukujonga ukuba ngaba iziko liyayilandela ngokuchanekileyo na imigqaliselo yeWwft. Kolu phando, ubume bomgaqo-nkqubo womngcipheko buvavanywa. Olu phando lukwajolise ekuqinisekiseni ukuba amaziko okunene enza ingxelo ngokwentengiselwano engaqhelekanga. Ukuba izibonelelo zeWwft zaphulwe, abasemagunyeni abagunyazisiweyo bagunyazisiwe ukuba banyanzelise uxanduva lokufumana isohlwayo esongezelelweyo okanye isohlwayo solawulo. Banethuba lokuyalela iziko ukuba lilandele ikhondo elithile lokwenza okuthile malunga nokuqulunqwa kweenkqubo zangaphakathi noqeqesho lwabasebenzi.

Ukuba iziko liye lasilela ukwenza ingxelo ngokungaqhelekanga, ukwaphulwa kwe-Wwft kuya kwenzeka. Ayinamsebenzi nokuba ukusilela ukwenza ingxelo kwenziwe ngabom okanye ngengozi. Ukuba iziko linyhasha i-Wwft, oku kubandakanya ityala loqoqosho ngokoMthetho wase-Datshi. I-FIU inakho ukuqhuba uphando ngakumbi ngokuziphatha kwengxelo yeziko. Kwiimeko ezimbi kakhulu, abaphetheyo abasemagunyeni banokuxela ukwaphulwa komthetho kumtshutshisi woluntu waseDatshi, onokuthi emva koko aqale uphando malunga nelo ziko. Iziko liya kuthi emva koko litshutshiswe kuba lingahambelani nomthetho weWwft.

7. Isiphelo

I-Wwft ngumthetho osebenza kumaziko amaninzi. Ke ngoko, kubalulekile ukuba la maziko azi ukuba ziziphi izibophelelo ekufuneka ezizalisekisile ukuze ahambisane ne-Wwft. Ukuqhuba umthengi ngenkuthalo, ukunika ingxelo ngentshisakalo engaqhelekanga, uxanduva lokugcina iimfihlo kunye noxanduva loqeqesho oluvela kwi-Wwft. Ezi zibophelelo ziye zasekwa ukuze kuqinisekiswe ukuba umngcipheko wokuxhaphaza imali kunye nokuxhasa ngemali ngobunqolobi buncinci njengoko kunokwenzeka kwaye inyathelo kwangoko linokuthatyathwa xa kukho ukukrokrela ukuba le misebenzi iyenzeka. Kumaziko, kubalulekile ukuvavanya ubungozi kunye nokuthatha amanyathelo ngokufanelekileyo. Kuxhomekeka kuhlobo lweziko kunye nemisebenzi eyenziwa liziko, imigaqo eyahlukeneyo inokusebenza.

I-Wwft ayibandakanyi nje ukuba amaziko kufuneka athobele uxanduva olusuka kwi-Wwft, kodwa iza nezinye iziphumo kumaziko. Xa ingxelo kwi-FIU yenziwa ngethemba, ulwaphulo-mthetho kunye nokugxothwa kwabucala kunikwa iziko. Kwimeko enjalo, ulwazi olunikezwe liziko alunakusetyenziswa ngokuchasene nalo. Uxanduva lwaseburhulumenteni lokulimaza umxhasi oluvela kwingxelo kwi-FIU nalo alubandakanywa. Kwelinye icala, kukho iziphumo xa waphulwe iWwft. Kwimeko embi kakhulu, iziko linga tshutshiswa ngolwaphulo mthetho. Ke ngoko, kubaluleke kakhulu ukuba amaziko athobele imiqathango yeWwft, kungekuphela ukunciphisa umngcipheko wokuxhaphaza imali kunye nokuxhasa ngezemali ubugrogrisi, kodwa nokuzikhusela.
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[1] 'Wat ngu de Wwft', Belastingdienst Nge-09-07-2018, www.belastingdienst.nl.

[2] Kamerstukken II Ngo-2017/18, 34 910, 7 (uNota van Wijziging).

[3] Kamerstukken II Ngo-2017/18, 34 808, 3, iphe. 3 (MvT).

[4] Kamerstukken II Ngo-2017/18, 34 808, 3, iphe. 3 (MvT).

[5] Kamerstukken II Ngo-2017/18, 34 808, 3, iphe. 8 (MvT).

[6] Kamerstukken II Ngo-2017/18, 34 808, 3, iphe. 3 (MvT).

[7] 'Amanzi yi-PEP', I-Autoriteit Financiele Markten Ngo-09-07-2018, www.afm.nl.

[8] Kamerstukken II Ngo-2017/18, 34 808, 3, iphe. 4 (MvT).

[9] 'Meldergroepen', FIU Ngo-09-07-2018, www.fiu-nederland.nl.

isabelo