Irejista ye-UBO: yoyiko lwayo yonke i-UBO?

1. intshayelelo

Ngomhla wamashumi amabini ku-20 kuCanzibe yowama-2015 iPalamente yase-Europe yamkela uMgaqo wesine oLumkisa ukuThintela imali. Ngokwesiseko salo Myalelo, onke amazwe angamalungu anyanzelekile ukuba aseke irejista ye-UBO. Zonke i-UBO zenkampani mazibandakanywe kwirejista. Njengoko i-UBO iya kulungela umntu ngamnye wendalo ophethe ngokuthe ngqo okanye ngokungathanga ngqo ngaphezulu kwe-25% yenzuzo (yokwabelana) yenkampani, engeyiyo inkampani edweliswe kwintengiso yesitokhwe. Kwimeko yokusilela ukuseka i-UBO ('s), ukhetho lokugqibela inokuba kukuthatha ingqalelo yendalo evela kubalawuli abaphezulu benkampani ukuba babeyi-UBO. ENetherlands, irejista ye-UBO kufuneka ifakwe ngaphambi kwe-26 kaJuni, 2017. Ulindelo kukuba irejista iza kuzisa iziphumo ezininzi kwimozulu yeshishini laseDatshi naseYurophu. Xa umntu engafuni ukumangaliswa ngokungathandabuzekiyo, umfanekiso ocacileyo wotshintsho oluzayo luya kuba yimfuneko. Ke, eli nqaku liya kuzama ukucacisa umxholo werejista ye-UBO ngokuhlalutya iimpawu zayo kunye neziphumo.

Umba waseYurophu

Umyalelo wesine wokuChasa imali ngokuchasene nemali iyimveliso yokwenza iYurophu. Umbono emva kokungeniswa kwale Direktha kukuba iYurophu ifuna ukunqanda abo baxhaphaza imali kunye nabaxhasi bezemali abangoyikiyo ekusebenziseni inkululeko yangoku yenkululeko kunye nenkululeko yokubonelela ngeenkonzo zemali ngezizathu zabo zolwaphulo-mthetho. Ngokuhambelana nale nto ngumnqweno wokumisela isazisi sayo yonke i-UBO, ukuba ngabantu abanolawulo oluninzi. Irejista ye-UBO iyinxalenye kuphela yeenguqu eziziswe nguMyalelo weSine oChasene neMali yokufezekisa injongo yayo.

Njengoko kukhankanyiwe, i-Directive kufuneka iphunyezwe ngaphambi kwe-26 kaJuni, 2017. Kumxholo werejista ye-UBO, uMgaqo-sikhokelo ucacisa isikhokelo esicacileyo. Isikhokelo sinyanzelisa amazwe ukuba azise amaziko amaninzi asemthethweni ngokusemgangathweni komthetho. Ngokwe-Directive, iintlobo ezintathu zabasemagunyeni kufuneka babe nokufikelela kwidatha ye-UBO nakweyiphi na imeko: abasemagunyeni abanobuchule (kubandakanywa nabaphathi abaphetheyo) nazo zonke iiYunithi zeIntelligence yezezimali, amagunya anyanzelekileyo (kubandakanya amaziko ezemali, amaziko etyala, abaphicothi zincwadi, ababhalisi kunye nabanikezeli beenkonzo zongcakazo) nabo bonke abantu okanye imibutho engabonisa umdla osemthethweni. Amazwe angamalungu, nangona kunjalo, anenkululeko yokuzikhethela irejista yoluntu ngokuphelele. Igama elithi "amagunya afanelekileyo" alichazwanga kwakhona kwi-Directive. Ngenxa yeso sizathu, iKhomishini yaseYurophu icele ukucaciswa kwisilungiso sakhe esicetywayo kwi-Directive kaJulayi 5, 2016.

Inani elincinci lolwazi ekufuneka lubandakanyiwe kwirejista yile ilandelayo: igama elipheleleyo, inyanga yokuzalwa, unyaka wokuzalwa, ubuzwe, ilizwe lokuhlala kunye nohlobo kunye nobungakanani bomdla woqoqosho ophethwe yi-UBO. Ukongeza, inkcazo yegama elithi "UBO" libanzi kakhulu. Eli gama alibandakanyi ulawulo ngqo (kwisiseko sobunini) se-25% okanye ngaphezulu, kodwa likwakhona nolawulo olungathanga ngqo olungaphaya kwama-25%. Ulawulo olungathanga ngqo luthetha enye indlela ngaphandle kobunini. Olu lawulo lungaxhomekeka kwiinkqubo zolawulo kwisivumelwano sabaninizabelo, amandla okuba nefuthe elikude kwinkampani okanye kwisakhono sokukhetha abalawuli.

3. irejista eNetherlands

Inkqubo-sikhokelo yamaDatshi yokusetyenziswa komthetho kwirejista ye-UBO icacisiwe gca kwileta eya kumphathiswa uDijsselbloem yomhla we-10 kuFebruwari ngo-2016. Ngokuphathelene nezigqeba ezigqunywe yimfuno yobhaliso, le leta ibonisa ukuba phantse azikho iindlela zoDatshi ezikhoyo. amaziko ayakuhlala engafundwanga, ngaphandle kokuphela kobunini bayo nawo onke amaziko oluntu. Iinkampani ezidwelisiweyo azibandakanywa. Ngokungafaniyo neendidi ezintathu zabantu kunye nabasemagunyeni abanelungelo lokuhlola ulwazi kwirejista njengoko lukhethwe kwinqanaba laseYurophu, iNetherlands ikhetha irejista yoluntu. Kungenxa yokuba irejista ethintelweyo ibandakanya ukungaphatheki kakuhle ngokweendleko, ukwenzeka nokuba uqinisekile. Njengoko irejista iya kuba sesesidlangalaleni, kukhuseleke kukhuseleko lwabucala ezine:

3.1. Wonke umsebenzisi wolwazi uya kubhaliswa.

3.2. Ukufikelela kulwazi akunikezelwa simahla.

3.3. Abasebenzisi ngaphandle kwabasemagunyeni abakhethiweyo (abasemagunyeni ababandakanya phakathi kweBhanki yaseDatshi, iGunya leMarike lezeMali kunye neOfisi yoLawulo lweMicimbi yezeMali) kunye neDutch Intelligence Unit yaseDutch baya kuba nokufikelela kuseti lweedatha kuphela.

3.4. Kwimeko yokuba semngciphekweni wokuphangwa, ukuphanga, ubundlobongela okanye isoyikiso, kuya kulandelwa umngcipheko wovavanyo kwimeko leyo, ekuya kuvavanywa ukuba ngaba ufikeleleko lwedatha ethile unokuvalwa ukuba kukho imfuneko.

Abasebenzisi ngaphandle kwabaphathi abachongiweyo kunye ne-AFM banokufikelela kulwazi olulandelayo kuphela: igama, inyanga yokuzalwa, ubuzwe, ilizwe lokuhlala kunye nohlobo kunye nobungakanani bomdla woqoqosho ophethwe ngumnini wenkonzo onenzuzo. Oku ubuncinci kuthetha ukuba ayingawo onke amaziko ekufuneka enze uphando kunyanzeliso lwe-UBO anokufumana lonke ulwazi olufunekayo kwirejista. Kuya kufuneka baqokelele olu lwazi ngokwabo kwaye balugcine olu lwazi kulawulo lwabo.

Ngenxa yokuba abasemagunyeni abachongiweyo kunye ne-FIU benendima ethile yophando kunye neyokubeka esweni, baya kuba nokufumana idatha eyongezelelweyo: (1) usuku, indawo kunye nelizwe lokuzalwa, (2) idilesi, (3) inombolo yenkonzo yabemi kunye / okanye inombolo yokuphawula irhafu yangaphandle (TIN), (4) ubume, inombolo kunye nomhla kunye nendawo ekhutshwe kuyo uxwebhu olo lwesazisi okanye ikopi yolo xwebhu kunye (5) namaxwebhu aqinisekisa ukuba kutheni umntu enenqanaba ye-UBO nobungakanani benzala (yezoqoqosho) ehambelanayo.

Ulindelo kukuba iChamber yoRhwebo iya kulawula irejista. Idatha iya kufikelela kwirejista ngokungenisa ulwazi ziinkampani kunye nemibutho esemthethweni ngokwayo. I-UBO ayinakwala ukuthatha inxaxheba ekungeniseni olu lwazi. Ngapha koko, abasemagunyeni abanyanzelekileyo, baya kuthi, ngandlela ithile, babe nomsebenzi wokunyanzelwa: banoxanduva lokunxibelelana kwirejista yonke ingcaciso abanayo, eyahlukileyo kwirejista. Amagunya aphathiswe uxanduva kwindawo yokulwa ukuxhaphaza imali, imali yokugrogrisa kunye nolunye uhlobo lolwaphulo-mthetho kunye noqoqosho kuya kuthi, ngobungakanani bomsebenzi wabo, abe nelungelo okanye afune ukungenisa idatha eyahlukileyo kwirejista. Akukacaci ukuba ngubani oza kulawula ngokusesikweni ngokomgaqo wokungeniswa kwengcaciso (yokungenisa ulwazi) ye-UBO kwaye ngubani oya kuthi afumane unelungelo lokukhupha izohlwayo.

4. Inkqubo engenasiphoso?

Ngaphandle kweemfuno ezingqongqo, umthetho we-UBO awubonakali ngathi awunamanzi kuzo zonke iinkalo. Zininzi iindlela umntu anokuqinisekisa ukuba enye iwela ngaphandle kwenqanaba lerejista ye-UBO.

4.1. Inani lokuthenjwa
Umntu unokukhetha ukusebenza ngokusebenzisa umfanekiso wokuthenjwa. Amanani ethembiso aphantsi kwemithetho eyahlukeneyo phantsi komgaqo. Isikhokelo sifuna irejista yamanani athembakeleyo. Le rejista ethile, nangona kunjalo, ayiyi kuvulelwa uluntu. Ngale ndlela, ukungaziwa kwabantu abasemva kwethembiso kuhlala kukhuselekile ngokungaphezulu. Imizekelo yamanani athembakeleyo kukuthemba kwe-Anglo-America kunye ne-Curaçao trust. UBonaire ukwazi umlinganiso othelekiswa nentembeko: i-DPF. Olu luhlobo oluthile lwesiseko, esingafaniyo nentembeko, esineempawu zomthetho. Ilawulwa ngumthetho we-BES.

4.2. Ukudluliselwa kwesitulo
Umyalelo wesine wokuChasana nokuThengiswa kweMali ukhankanya oku kulandelayo ngokusebenza: "... iinkampani namanye amaziko asemthethweni asekwe kwimimandla yawo". Esi sigwebo sithetha ukuba iinkampani, ezisekwe ngaphandle komda wamalungu amalungu, kodwa kamva zihambise isitulo senkampani yazo kwilungu lelungu, azigqunywe ngumthetho. Umzekelo, umntu unokucinga ngeekhonsepthi zomthetho ezithandwayo njengeJersey Ltd., i-BES BV kunye neAmerican Inc. I-DPF inokuthatha isigqibo sokuhambisa isihlalo sayo eNetherlands kwaye iqhubeke nokwenza imisebenzi njenge-DPF.

5. Iinguqu ezizayo?

Umbuzo kukuba ingaba i-European Union izakufuna na ukuqhubela phambili amathuba akhankanywe apha ngasentla ukuthintela umthetho we-UBO. Nangona kunjalo, okwangoku akukho zikhombisi zibonakalayo ukuba utshintsho luya kwenzeka kule nqaku kwixesha elifutshane. Kwisindululo sakhe esandlalwe nge-5 kaJulayi, iKhomishini yaseYurophu icele utshintsho kwi-Directive. Esi sindululo asibandakanyi iinguqu ngokubhekisele phambili. Ngapha koko, akukacaci nokuba olu tshintsho luzakuphunyezwa luzakuphunyezwa na. Nangona kunjalo, akuyi kuba yinto ephosakeleyo ukuthathela ingqalelo ngotshintsho olucetywayo kunye nokuba kunokwenzeka ukuba ezinye iinguqu ziya kwenziwa kamva. Iinguqu ezine eziphambili njengoko kucetywayo ngoku zezi zilandelayo:

5.1. IKomishini iceba ukwenza ukuba irejista ibe sesidlangalaleni. Oku kuthetha ukuba isikhokelo siya kulungiswa kwinqanaba lokufikelela kwabantu kunye nemibutho engabonisa umdla osemthethweni. Apho ufikelelo lwawo lwalunokulinganiselwa ngaphambili kulwazi olukhankanyiweyo ngaphambili, irejista ngoku iya kwaziswa kubo kwakhona.

5.2. IKhomishini iceba ukuchaza eli gama "amagunya afanelekileyo" ngolu hlobo lulandelayo: ".. loo magunya kawonkewonke anoluxanduva lokulwa ukuphathwa gadalala kwemali okanye ukubambisa imali, kubandakanya abasemagunyeni beerhafu nabasemagunyeni abanomsebenzi wokuphanda okanye ukutshutshisa ukuxhaphaza imali, ukuchas 'umthetho. ukuxhotyiswa ngezimali ngobugebenga, ukulandela nokubamba okanye ukumkhulula kunye nokuhlutha impahla yolwaphulo-mthetho ”.

5.3. IKhomishini icela ukuba kucace gca ngakumbi kunye nokuba kunokwenzeka ukubonwa kwe-UBO ngokunxibelelana kwazo zonke iirejista zelizwe zamazwe angamalungu.

5.4. Ikhomishini ibonelela ngaphezulu, kwezinye iimeko, ukwehlisa izinga le-UBO le-25% ukuya kwi-10%. Le iya kuba yimeko yokuba yimibutho esemthethweni njengeziko elingezizo ezemali. Ezi "..zixhobo zangaphakathi ezingenanto yakwenza noqoqosho kwaye zisebenzela ukuhambisa umgama kubanini abanenzuzo kwizinto zexabiso".

5.5. Ikhomishini iphakamisela ukutshintsha ixesha elibekiweyo lokuphunyezwa ukusuka nge-26 kaJuni, 2017 ukuya kuJanuwari 1, 2017.

isiphelo

Ukuqaliswa kwerejista yoluntu ye-UBO kuya kuba nefuthe elikude kumashishini kumazwe angamalungu. Abantu ngokuthe ngqo okanye ngokungathanga ngqo abanayo ngaphezulu kwe-25% yenzuzo yenkampani engeyiyo inkampani edwelisiweyo, baya kunyanzeliswa ukuba benze amadini amaninzi kwindawo yobumfihlo, bonyusa umngcipheko wobumnyama nokubhujiswa; Ngaphandle kwento yokuba iNetherlands ibonakalisile ukuba iya kwenza konke okusemandleni ukunciphisa le mingcipheko kangangoko kunokwenzeka. Ukongeza, ezinye iimeko ziya kufumana uxanduva olukhulu ngokubhekisele ekuqapheleni nasekuhambiseni idatha eyahlukileyo kwidatha kwirejista ye-UBO. Ukungeniswa kwerejista ye-UBO kunokuthetha ukuba umntu uza kutshintsha ajolise kwimanani othembela kuyo, okanye iziko lezomthetho elisekwe ngaphandle kwamazwe angamalungu elinokuthi emva koko lidlulisele isitulo salo kwimeko yelungu. Andiqinisekanga nokuba ezi zinto ziya kuhlala zikhuselekile kwixesha elizayo. Isilungiso esikhoyo njengangoku sokuqulunqwa kweSikhokelo sokuShenxiswa kweMali ye-Ani asinalo naluphi na utshintsho okwangoku. ENetherlands, umntu kufuneka athabathe ingqalelo kwisindululo sokudityaniswa kweerejista zikazwelonke, utshintsho olunokwenzeka kumyinge wama-25% kunye nomhla wokuqaliswa kwangoko.

isabelo